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AuthorYearTitleSecondary AuthorSecondary TitlePlace PublishedPublisherVolumePagesEditionISBN/ISSNDOIURLAbstract
Abrahams, P.W.; Tranter, M.; Davies, T.D.1988The trace element composition of stream- and melt-waters at times of the spring-thaw in the Scottish HighlandsEnvironmental Geochemistry and HealthKluwer Academic Publishers108402694042 (ISSN)10.1007/bf01758673 snow and streamwater samples were collected on a daily basis throughout the winter and spring periods of 1984 and 1985 at a remote, upland catchment located within the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Laboratory based partial-melt experiments undertaken on the snow samples demonstrated that both fractionation and preferential elution of trace-elements occur during melting, with the concentrations being 1.3 to 5.4 times greater than in the first 10 percent meltwater fractions than in the bulk snow (Abrahams et al., in press). At the onset of snowpack melting, the ions may be mobilised and redistributed within the snow profile, concentrating at depths from where they may be quickly removed during the early spring run-off. The raised major- (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, NO3 and SO4) and trace-element (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb) concentrations recorded in the streamwaters during the "acid-flush" episodes at the time of the first major periods of snow-melt, reflect both the meltwater composition and the influence of the catchment soils (Abrahams et al., submitted for publication). Differences in streamwater chemistry during the two periods of snow-melt which were studies can probably be related to the fact that snow-melt occurs under a variety of circumstances with significant variations in the sequence of precipitation, melt-events, temperature and snowcover occurring from year to year, even in the same catchment. The high concentrations of Al (up to 330 μg L-1) in the sireamwaters at the time of snow-melt, probably reflect leaching of this element from the soil. These elevated concentrations, in combination with other streamwater parameters, may prove toxic to aquatic life-forms at this time of year. (C) 1988 Sciences and Technology Letters.
Abrahams, P.W., et al.1989Geochemical studies in a remote scottish upland catchment II. Streamwater chemistry during snow-meltWater, Air, and Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers43231-24800496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00279194Acid-flush' events, monitored in an upland catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland) at the time of the spring-thaw, are associated with an increase in stream discharge and raised concentrations of both major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, N03, and SO,) and trace-elements (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb), in addition to H+. The streamwater chemistry is determined by the hydrological pathways which are operative in the catchment during these periods of snowmelt, and reflects both the meltwater composition and the influence of the soils within the catchment. Aluminium, in particular, is leached from the soils and high concentrations (up to 330 μg L-1) occur in the streamwaters. The presence of frozen soils, which result largely due to the influence of meteorological conditions prior to the accumulation of the snowpack, is likely to have a large impact on the Al concentrations in the streamwaters. The low concentrations of Ca monitored in the stream during the periods of snow-melt (<0.2 mg L-1) may promote subsequent toxic effects of the Al to aquatic life forms.[/p] (C) 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Abrahams, P.W., et al.1988Trace-element studies in a remote scottish upland catchment - 1. Chemical Composition of Snow and MeltwatersWater, Air, and Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers37255-27100496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00192939Fresh and aged within-pack snow samples were collected and analyzed for 6 trace-elements during the winters of 1984 and 1985 at a remote site located within the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. All of the fresh snow samples were acidic and highly variable in composition. The variability of pH and trace-element concentrations of snowfall are demonstrated to be associated with different air trajectory categories, and the study catchment is susceptible to episodic pollution events due to long range atmospheric transport. Partial melt experiments have shown that both fractionation and preferential elution of trace-elements occur during melting, the concentrations being 1.3 to 5.4 times higher in the first 10% meltwater fraction than in the bulk snow. Cadmium and Mn appear to be preferentially eluted from the melting snow with respect to the remaining elements. Upon snowpack melting, the trace-elements may be mobilized and redistributed within the snow profile. The ions concentrate at depth from where they can be quickly removed with the early water runoff during the spring. (C) 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Addy, S.; Soulsby, C.; Hartley, A.J.2014Controls on the distribution of channel reach morphology in selectively glaciated catchmentsGeomorphology211121-1330169-555X10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.12.035To assess the controls on the distribution of channel reach morphology in a selectively glaciated landscape, we used field mapping and a geographical information system (GIS) in the River Dee catchment northeast Scotland. Controls on channel morphology were investigated using (1) continuous longitudinal assessment of channel morphology distribution in relation to geology, glacial history, topography, and total stream power (Omega) in two subcatchments, and (2) slope (S), Omega, and a slope-drainage area (S-A) framework to understand the occurrence of 173 widely distributed bedrock, mixed bedrock-alluvial, and alluvial (three different types) reaches. The S-A framework used indicators of transport capacity (Q(c)) and sediment supply (Q(s)) to differentiate channel types. The study highlights the disjointed nature of channel reach distribution at the river scale that reflects variable lithology and glacial modification. Because of the subdued topography in contrast to other regions, colluvial forcing of channel morphology in the headwaters was lacking. However, in common with other glaciated landscapes, repeated sequences of channel reach type progression determined by valley steps were evident. The S-A analysis successfully discriminated 87.2% of alluvial and 91.4% of bedrock reaches despite the variable land use and glacial modification. Discrimination of the full range of channel types using S, Omega, or the S-A framework was poor however. Notably, a third of the transport alluvial reaches were located in the bedrock S-A domain, and the majority of mixed reaches were widely distributed mostly within the bedrock domain and not close to the critical slope (S-c). In comparison to other regions, the S-c above which Q(c) > Q(s) and bedrock reaches dominate, was notably higher. We hypothesise that a drier climate and the higher entrainment threshold of coarse, granite-dominated bed materials create a higher S-c. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Addy, S., et al.2011Characterisation of channel reach morphology and associated controls in deglaciated montane catchments in the Cairngorms, ScotlandGeomorphology132176-1860169-555x10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.05.007://WOS:000293681500010; morphological characteristics of 50 channel reaches were surveyed in montane streams in the River Dee catchment to test an existing process-based typology. Included in the analysis were common reach types documented elsewhere (e.g., cascade, step-pool, and pool-riffle). In addition, mixed bedrock-alluvial, alluvial transitional, and wandering reach types (that have received less attention) were also investigated given their common occurrence in the study area. Differences in geometry, substrate character, and flow resistance are evident particularly between principal types, although differentiation of mixed bedrock-alluvial and transitional types was less marked. Wandering reaches occupy a slope range that overlaps with other types but are distinguished by a grain size distribution that is intermediate between plane-bed and pool-riffle reaches and a high channel width for a given discharge. The quantitative differences observed, support visually based differentiation of channel types based on their bedform assemblages. Morphological characteristics were also related to a suite of variables to determine first-order controls on reach type. Channel cross-sectional geometry is strongly correlated with discharge, whilst grain size and indices of flow resistance are strongly correlated with slope and boundary shear stress in particular. In addition, the paraglacially conditioned geomorphic setting constitutes an important local control. The morphological properties of common channel types (bedrock, cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, and pool-riffle) broadly correspond with those observed elsewhere, although channel slope ranges were markedly lower. We hypothesise that channel types exist in a lower domain of slope because of a lower sediment supply rate that reflects the distinctive landscape evolution of the Cairngorms area. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aitken, B.1990National parks for Scotland? The next chapterECOS: a Review of Conservation1162-66A review of the background to, and contents of, the report on mountain areas of Scotland published by the Countryside Commission in September 1990. The report proposes a series of national and regional indicative strategies which would extend those for forestry to farming, landscape, nature conservation, sport, recreation and tourism. Within this framework few "Areas of Special Importance' (national parks in all but name) are proposed for: Loch Lomond and the Trossachs; the Cairngorms; Ben Nevis/Glen Coe; and Western Ross, at a cost of #7.75 million and to be run by Boards. -A.Gilg
Alexander, K.; Green, T.2018Wood pasture and cattle in the cairngorms National Park?British WildlifeBritish Wildlife Publishing307709580956 (ISSN)
Ali, G., et al.2014A comparison of wetness indices for the prediction of observed connected saturated areas under contrasting conditionsEarth Surface Processes and Landforms39399-4130197-933710.1002/esp.3506://WOS:000332990600009; lack of other widely available spatial information, topography is often used to predict water fluxes and water quality in mesoscale watersheds. Such data have however proven to be misleading in many environments where large and flat valley bottoms and/or highly conducive soil covers determine water storage and water transport mechanisms. Also, the focus is generally on the prediction of saturation areas regardless of whether they are connected to the catchment hydrographic network or rather present in isolated topographic depressions. Here soil information was coupled with terrain data towards the targeted prediction of connected saturated areas. The focus was on the 30km(2) Girnock catchment (Cairngorm Mountains, northeast Scotland) and its 3km(2) sub-catchment, Bruntland Burn in which seven field surveys were done to capture actual maps of connected saturated areas in both dry and humid conditions. The 1km(2) resolution UK Hydrology of Soil Types (HOST) classification was used to extract relevant, spatially variable, soil parameters. Results show that connected saturated areas were fairly well predicted by wetness indices but only in wet conditions when they covered more than 30% of the whole catchment area. Geomorphic indices including information on terrain shape, steepness, aspect, soil texture and soil depth showed potential but generally performed poorly. Indices based on soil and topographic data did not have more predictive power than those based on topographic information only: this was attributed to the coarse resolution of the HOST classification. Nevertheless, analyses provided interesting insights into the scale-dependent water storage and transport mechanisms in both study catchments. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ali, G., et al.2012Topographic, pedologic and climatic interactions influencing streamflow generation at multiple catchment scalesHydrological Processes263858-38741099-108510.1002/hyp.8416://WOS:000312143100007; flow pathways (DFPs) in mesoscale watersheds are poorly characterized and understood. Here, we make use of a conservative tracer (Gran alkalinity) and detailed information about climatic conditions and physical properties to examine how temporally and spatially variable factors interact to determine DFPs in 12 catchments draining areas from 3.4 to 1829.5?km(2) (Cairngorms, Scotland). After end-member mixing was applied to discriminate between near surface and deep groundwater flow pathways, variation partitioning, canonical redundancy analyses and regression models were used to resolve: (i) What is the temporal variability of DFPs in each catchment?; (ii) How do DFPs change across spatial scales and what factors control the differences in hydrological responses?; and (iii) Can a conceptual model be developed to explain the spatiotemporal variability of DFPs as a function of climatic, topographic and soil characteristics? Overall, catchment characteristics were only useful to explain the temporal variability of DFPs but not their spatial variation across scale. The temporal variability of DFPs was influenced most by prevailing hydroclimatic conditions and secondarily soil drainability. The predictability of active DFPs was better in catchments with soils supporting fast runoff generation on the basis of factors such as the cumulative precipitation from the seven previous days, mean daily air temperature and the fractional area covered by Rankers. The best regression model R2 was 0.54, thus suggesting that the catchments internal complexity was not fully captured by the factors included in the analysis. Nevertheless, this study highlights the utility of combining tracer studies with digital landscape analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to gain insights into the temporal (climatic) and spatial (topographic and pedologic) controls on DFPs. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Allen, J.R.M.; Huntley, B.1999Estimating past floristic diversity in montane regions from macrofossil assemblagesJournal of Biogeography2655-730305-027010.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00284.x://WOS:000080173700006; relationship between the diversity of higher plant macrofossils in surface sediments of lakes and the surrounding vegetation is examined in two mountain regions; Grodalen in central Norway and the south-east Cairngorms in Scotland. Two lake sediment cores from each area were also analysed to examine vegetation history and to estimate changes in biodiversity through the Holocene. The diversity of present day vegetation in each region was estimated using both quadrat data and classified satellite images of the study areas. The mean surface sample macrofossil representation of species recorded in quadrats collected within 250m of the lakes was c. 17%. This figure drops to only c. 2% when the satellite imagery of the same area is used to provide a maximal species list. The macrofossil data from the Norwegian cores show that deglaciation in this region occurred earlier on the mountain summit than in the valley and that the maximum tree line elevation was during the interval 9100-4400 (14)C yr sp. In the Cairngorms the maximum tree line elevation was prior to c. 4500 (14)C yr BP. The changes in higher plant diversity recorded at these sites through the Holocene show that c. 4000 (14)C yr sp the reduction in the tree line resulted in decreased P-diversity at higher altitudes but an increase at the lower altitude as the forest cover opened up. Under conditions of climatic warming it is likely areas that come to lie below the tree line will experience reduced diversity and that a permanent loss of biodiversity would result from a severe reduction in the area above the tree line.
Allott, T.E.H., et al.1995The impact of nitrogen deposition on upland surface waters in Great Britain: A regional assessment of nitrate leachingWater, Air, & Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers85297-30200496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00476845; national dataset of water chemistry collected for critical loads mapping is used to make a regional assessment of surface water nitrate concentrations in Great Britain. The primary data are dominated by high concentrations in lowland regions Where N inputs are dominated by non-atmospheric sources. Land cover data are used to screen out sites with potential catchment sources of N, allowing the evaluation of nitrate leaching due to atmospheric deposition alone. In the screened dataset several upland regions show elevated nitrate concentrations, notably Wales, the Pennines, Cumbria, Galloway and the Cairngorms, and there is a clear relationship between surface water nitrate and total N deposition. (C) 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Anderson, I.C.; Campbell, C.D.; Prosser, J.I.2003Diversity of fungi in organic soils under a moorland - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) gradientEnvironmental Microbiology51121-11321462-291210.1046/j.1462-2920.2003.00522.x://WOS:000186173900011; conservation and regeneration of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) woodlands is being actively encouraged by conservation agencies in the UK because of their high biodiversity value. In the present study, the consequences of regeneration on terrestrial fungal communities was determined in three parallel transects running from open moorland, through an intermediate zone showing seedling colonization, into a mature Scots pine forest at Abernethy Forest, Cairngorm, Scotland. Soil cores were taken at 18 m intervals along each 180 m transect, and the diversity of the soil fungal community was investigated by DGGE and sequence analysis of ITS fragments PCR-amplified from DNA extracted from soil. Analysis of DGGE profiles generated for two of the three transects indicates a clear shift in the community from the moorland region of the transects to the forest region. Whereas a few bands were present at all sampling points across the transects, the majority of bands were unique to either the moorland or forest samples. FASTA database searches of ITS sequence data generated from excised DGGE bands revealed the closest species match for each band. In some cases, the similarity of ITS sequences to database sequences was poor, but the remaining sequences were most closely related to ITS sequences of both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal fungi. The data are discussed in relation to the effect of native pine woodland expansion on the soil fungal community.
Andrews, C.f.; Ives, S.; Dick, J.2016Long-term observations of increasing snow cover in the western CairngormsWeatherJohn Wiley and Sons Ltd71178-18100431656 (ISSN)10.1002/wea.2731; part of the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) long-term monitoring, an automatic repeat-photography camera was installed to record changes in landscape phenology in the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment, Cairngorms National Park, Scotland. For 13 consecutive winters between 2002 and 2015, the date for the onset of continuous winter snow cover, and subsequent melt, was recorded on slopes of north and north-easterly aspect at altitudes between 450m and 1111m amsl. Results show that the period of time during which snow is continuously present in the catchment has increased significantly by 81 (±21.01) days over the 13-year period, and that this is largely driven by a significantly later melt date, rather than earlier onset of winter snow cover. (C) 2016 Royal Meteorological Society
Ashmole, N.P., et al.1983Insects and spiders on snowfields in the Cairngorms, ScotlandJournal of Natural History17599-6130022-293310.1080/00222938300770491://WOS:A1983QU18300007;
Aspinall, R.1992An inductive modeling procedure based on Bayes Theorem for analysis of pattern in spatial dataInternational Journal of Geographical Information Systems6105-1210269-379810.1080/02693799208901899://WOS:A1992JA51100003; paper describes an inductive modelling procedure integrated with a geographical information system for analysis of pattern within spatial data. The aim of the modelling procedure is to predict the distribution within one data set by combining a number of other data sets. Data set combination is carried out using Bayes' theorem. Inputs to the theorem, in the form of conditional probabilities, are derived from an inductive learning process in which attributes of the data set to be modelled are compared with attributes of a variety of predictor data sets. This process is carried out on random subsets of the data to generate error bounds on inputs for analysis of error propagation associated with the use of Bayes' theorem to combine data sets in the GIS. The statistical significance of model inputs is calculated as part of the inductive learning process. Use of the modelling procedure is illustrated through the analysis of the winter habitat relationships of red deer in Grampian Region, north-east Scotland. The distribution of red deer in Deer Management Group areas in Gordon and in Kincardine and Deeside Districts is used to develop a model which predicts the distribution throughout Grampian Region; this is tested against red deer distribution in Moray District. Habitat data sets used for constructing the model are accumulated frost and altitude, obtained from maps, and land cover, derived from satellite imagery. Errors resulting from the use of Bayes' theorem to combine data sets within the GIS and introduced in generalizing output from 50 m pixel to 1 km grid squares resolution are analysed and presented in a series of maps. This analysis of error trains is an integral part of the implemented analytical procedure and provides support to the interpretation of the results of modelling. Potential applications of the modelling procedure are discussed.
Aspinall, R.J.; Hill, M.J.; Ieee1997Land cover change: A method for assessing the reliability of land cover changes measured from remotely-sensed dataIgarss '97 - 1997 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Proceedings Vols I-Iv: Remote Sensing - a Scientific Vision for Sustainable DevelopmentNew YorkI E E E269-2710-7803-3837-5 method for assessing the reliability of land cover changes measured using data from different dates is presented and tested using a study area in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. Two sources of uncertainty are recognised in the change detection process: a) slivers resulting from misalignment of boundaries of land cover polygons and b) false positive changes associated with mis-classification error in production of the land cover maps.
Aspinall, R.J.; Miller, D.R.; Birnie, R.V.1993Geographical information systems for rural land use planningApplied Geography1354-6601436228 (ISSN)10.1016/0143-6228(93)90080-k; recent initiatives from the Scottish Office Environment Department are used as examples of the current and potential application of GIS-based techniques to rural land use issues and land use planning: the Land Cover of Scotland project, which will provide a census of land cover for Scotland at 1:25 000 scale, and the Indicative Forestry Strategies, which are intended as a broad assessment of opportunities for new forestry taking into account environmental and other factors. These initiatives are used as examples to highlight some of the methodological and technical issues underpinning the application of GIS to 'land use' and land use planning. These are considered fundamental in relation to the relevance of GIS as an applied technology. The paper describes the context within which GIS must be applied and discusses issues of data quality in GIS as a basis for the examples presented which are drawn from the Cairngorms and Badenoch and Strathspey District. (C) 1993.
Bachell, A.1993The Cairngorms - management in partnershipPlanner7925-27 Caringorms have been the subject of proposals for protected status and integrated management since at least the 1930s. World Heritage status is seen by some as the eventual accolade to be sought for the area. Two national scenic areas were designated in 1980 providing a slight increase in overall planning control but otherwise the Cairngorms have not received additional measures of control. Today problems of continuing habitat degradation, and issues of development control, proliferation of hill tracks, poor design standards, and largely unregulated recreation pressures, are all perceived as potential threats to the basic natural heritage resource of the area. The Cairngorms Partnership will have the principal role in co-ordinating the various agencies and interest and preparing the management strategy. Implementation by incentives for natural heritage work will require additional public funds. It seems probable that Scotland's first serious attempt at integrated management in one of the most valuable upland areas will be on the basis of a newly forged consensus, the robustness of which is unknown. The Cairngorms Partnership will require those involved to reappraise of their traditional roles and decision making activities. The Cairngorms Working Party have made a bold and optimistic set of recommendations, and it will require an equally bold and enthusiastic response to deliver the high standards of management which this area requires. -from Author
Baggaley, N.J., et al.2009Long-term trends in hydro-climatology of a major Scottish mountain riverScience of the Total Environment4074633-46410048-969710.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.04.015://WOS:000267839200011; River Dee, in North East Scotland, is a mountainous river strongly influenced by patterns of snow accumulation and melt from the Cairngorm Mountains. Analysis of this river's flow record from 1929-2004, the longest in Scotland, supports anecdotal evidence that river extreme flows are increasing. There was no detectable change in the overall annual flow patterns. However, an analysis of seasonal data suggested a shift towards increased flows in spring (March-May) and decreased flows in summer (June-August) over the 75 years of the record. Flows in spring exceeded 29 m(3) s(-1) for 50% of the time over the earliest part of the record (1930 to 1954), whereas in the last 25 years of the record (1979 to 2004) 50% of the flows exceeded 35 m(3) s(-1). Precipitation is increasing in the spring and decreasing in July and August. If these trends continue they have important implications for water management in the Dee, with a potential increase in flood risk in spring and the increased possibility of drought in summer. Combined with this increase in flows the river appears to be more responsive to precipitation events in the catchment. In large heterogeneous catchments with a marginal alpine/high latitude climate it is difficult to assess the amount of precipitation falling as snow and its relative accumulation and ablation dynamics on daily to seasonal time scales. Changes in the temporal pattern of coherence between flow and precipitation are thought to be linked to changing snow patterns in the upland part of the catchment. A decreased amount of precipitation occurring as snow has led to higher coherence. We also show that in responsive systems it is important to record river flows at an hourly rather than daily time step in order to characterise peak flow events. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bailey, J.J.; Boyd, D.S.; Field, R.2018Models of upland species' distributions are improved by accounting for geodiversityLandscape Ecology332071-20870921-297310.1007/s10980-018-0723-z://WOS:000451749800003; research suggests that novel geodiversity data on landforms, hydrology and surface materials can improve biodiversity models at the landscape scale by quantifying abiotic variability more effectively than commonly used measures of spatial heterogeneity. However, few studies consider whether these variables can account for, and improve our understanding of, species' distributions.ObjectivesAssess the role of geodiversity components as macro-scale controls of plant species' distributions in a montane landscape.MethodsWe used an innovative approach to quantifying a landscape, creating an ecologically meaningful geodiversity dataset that accounted for hydrology, morphometry (landforms derived from geomorphometric techniques), and soil parent material (data from expert sources). We compared models with geodiversity to those just using topographic metrics (e.g. slope and elevation) and climate data. Species distribution models (SDMs) were produced for rare' (N=76) and common' (N=505) plant species at 1km(2) resolution for the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland.ResultsThe addition of automatically produced landform geodiversity data and hydrological features to a basic SDM (climate, elevation, and slope) resulted in a significant improvement in model fit across all common species' distribution models. Adding further geodiversity data on surface materials resulted in a less consistent statistical improvement, but added considerable conceptual value to many individual rare and common SDMs.ConclusionsThe geodiversity data used here helped us capture the abiotic environment's heterogeneity and allowed for explicit links between the geophysical landscape and species' ecology. It is encouraging that relatively simple and easily produced geodiversity data have the potential to improve SDMs. Our findings have important implications for applied conservation and support the need to consider geodiversity in management.
Bain, D.C., et al.1993Variations in weathering processes and rates with time in a chronosequence of soils from Glen Feshie, ScotlandGeoderma57275-29300167061 (ISSN)10.1016/0016-7061(93)90010-i; and mineralogical characteristics have been determined for a chronosequence of six soil profiles ranging in age from 80-13,000 years BP developed on river terraces in the western Cairngorms of Scotland. The C horizons are similar chemically and mineralogically, and the soils have similar pedogenetic histories. Exchangeable Ca and Mg decrease with time and base saturation decreases exponentially from 24.6% in the Ah horizon of the youngest profile to 2.8% in the comparable horizon of the 10,000 year old profile according to the chronofunction y=3.372+22.612 exp(-0.0007365t). Long-term weathering rates of base cations, calculated from the loss of these cations relative to Zr, appear to decrease exponentially with time but this may be due to the method of calculation. The magnitude of loss of base cations decreases in the sequence Na>K>Mg>Ca but when the relative mobilities of these elements are considered, the loss is in the order Mg>Na>Ca>K; this reflects the dissolution of chlorite and loss of Mg, and the more rapid weathering of plagioclase feldspar and loss of Na and Ca (particularly in the coarse sand fraction) than K-feldspar. The clay fractions, although <2% of all horizons, also show distinct patterns with age in that chlorite and mica are less abundant in older soils and vermiculite is more abundant, the latter phase often having hydroxyaluminium polymers in the interlayer region. The chemical and mineralogical trends in the soil sequence are closely associated and are induced by pedogenic weathering. (C) 1993.
Baines, D.; Sage, R.B.; Baines, M.M.1994The implications of red deer grazing to ground vegetation and invertebrate communities of Scottish native pinewoodsJournal of Applied Ecology31776-7830021-890110.2307/2404167://WOS:A1994PT07000018; The effect of grazing by red deer was assessed in eight native pinewoods in the Scottish Highlands in 1991 and 1992 by comparing ground vegetation and invertebrate communities in grazed forest with adjacent ungrazed deer exclosures. 2. Grazing was associated with less heather cover and more grass. Bilberry cover remained the same, but grazed bilberry was half the height of ungrazed bilberry and had almost twice as many of its apical tips removed by grazing. 3. Lepidopterous larvae formed 60% of all invertebrates. Four species comprised 96% of larvae, those of Hydriomena furcata were most numerous (39%). 4. Forests in the West (Argyll) had, on average, more than seven times fewer lepidopterous larvae than those in the East (Deeside). Rates of decrease towards the West differed between species. 5. On average, numbers of lepidopterous larvae in grazing exclosures were almost 4-fold higher, Hymenoptera, chiefly ants Formica rufa 3-fold higher, and Coleoptera, Aranaea, Diptera and Plecoptera all 2-fold higher than in grazed forest. 6. The importance of deer grazing and tree density in determining larval abundance and their subsequent potential for affecting insectivorous birds in pinewoods are discussed.
Bairner, J.1982Conflict in the Cairngorms - Lurchers Gully: a role playing exerciseScottish Association of Geography Teachers Bulletin2013-17 awareness of geographical conflict was increased through staged conflict, which was both enjoyable for the pupils and succeeded in stimulating heated/emotional debate.-J.Sheail
Baker, B., et al.1979An automatic weather station for operation in severe icing climatesJournal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments12734-73800223735 (ISSN)10.1088/0022-3735/12/8/017 mechanical construction, electronic logic control and data-logging systems are described of an automatic weather station capable of operating throughout the year in the severe icing and wind regime of the summit of Cairngorm in Scotland.
Ballantyne, C.K.1994Scottish landform examples — 10: The tors of the CairngormsScottish Geographical Magazine11054-5900369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369229418736908;;
Ballantyne, C.K.2008After the ice: Holocene geomorphic activity in the Scottish HighlandsScottish Geographical Journal1248-521470-254110.1080/14702540802300167://WOS:000259196600003; rich variety of processes have modified the glacial landscape of the Scottish Highlands since the last glaciers disappeared 11,500 years ago. Many of these processes can be described as paraglacial (glacially-conditioned): retreat of glacier ice has resulted in exposure of metastable sediment sources (rock slopes, drift-mantled slopes and valley-floor glacigenic deposits) that have been reworked over a range of timescales. Much of the reworked sediment has been deposited in paraglacial sediment stores (talus accumulations, debris cones, alluvial fans, valley fills, river terraces and deltas). The trajectory of paraglacial sediment transfer can be approximated by an exhaustion model. A corollary of this model is that all sediment stores eventually undergo a change from net accumulation to net erosion, reflecting the non-renewable nature of sediment sources. This concept helps to explain why most talus accumulations, debris cones and alluvial fans in the Highlands are now relict, and why many floodplains appear to have experienced an initial period of aggradation followed by later river incision and terrace development. Since deglaciation, rock slopes have experienced paraglacial stress release due to differential deglacial unloading. Many rock slopes have remained stable or experienced gradual adjustment through intermittent rockfall. At over 600 sites, however, large-scale rock-slope failure has occurred, either in the form of catastrophic failure with complete or arrested debris runout, or as major slope deformations. Modification of drift-mantled slopes has been dominated by rainstorm-generated debris flows activity, which have stripped sediment from slopes and redeposited it in debris cones. Radiocarbon dating of buried organic horizons shows that debris flows have occurred intermittently throughout the Holocene. Snow avalanches have played only a localized role in paraglacial sediment transfer. The Holocene alluvial history of the Highlands is poorly understood. Some alluvial fans formed during a few exceptional flood events, and there is evidence that postglacial floodplain aggradation peaked in the late Holocene and was succeeded by floodplain incision and terrace development, possibly reflecting upstream reduction in paraglacial sediment supply. Other processes have operated independently of glacial conditioning. The effects of wind action are dominant in the coastal zone, forming dunefields through aeolian reworking of beach sand, and on plateaux in the form of deflation surfaces and sand sheets. Extensive erosion of plateau-top sands and aeolisols occurred in the period AD 1550-1700, a period of exceptional storminess. Small-scale periglacial processes have also been active on high ground throughout the Holocene, including granular weathering of exposed rock surfaces, the development of small-scale frost-sorted patterned ground on unvegetated terrain, and slow downslope movement of solifluction sheets, solifluction lobes and ploughing boulders.
Ballantyne, C.K.2010Extent and deglacial chronology of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet: implications of exposure dating using cosmogenic isotopesJournal of Quaternary Science25515-5340267-817910.1002/jqs.1310://WOS:000277674700009; 160 Be-10 and Cl-36 exposure ages pertaining to the extent and chronology of the last British Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) are critically reviewed. Despite uncertainties inherent in the use of exposure ages, this approach has demonstrated that at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 26-21 ka) the BUS extended over all low ground in Scotland and all (or almost all) of Ireland, consistent with recent models depicting extension of the last BIIS to the Atlantic shelf edge. All exposure ages obtained for high-level sites above trimlines on the mountains of northwestern Scotland and Ireland pre-date the LGM. This finding confirms that high plateaux in these areas escaped significant glacial erosion, probably under a protective cover of cold-based glacier ice that remained frozen to the underlying substrate. In terms of deglaciation chronology, the southern Irish Sea basin was probably cleglaciated by 19-18 ka, with extensive deglaciation of low ground in Ireland and northeastern Scotland prior to ca. 14.5 ka. Ice cover on low ground in northwestern Scotland apparently persisted after 14.0 ka, suggesting survival of ice in favourable locations during the Lateglacial Interstade (ca. 14.5-12.9 ka). Attempts to date readvances have had mixed success. The Wester Ross Readvance in northwestern Scotland was initially dated to ca. 16.3 ka, but more recent research implies a much younger age (ca. 14.0-13.5 ka). Exposure ages indicating a prolonged stillstand during ice sheet retreat in the Cairngorms at ca. 14.5-14.0 ka conflict with ages obtained on postglacial rockslides and basal radiocarbon dates, which indicate deglaciation before ca. 15.5-15.0 ka. Exposure dating has been successfully employed to confirm a Loch Lomond Stadia I (ca. 12.9-11.5 ka) age for moraines in several mountain areas, and to constrain the minimum altitude of the ice cap that extended over the Western Grampians at that time. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ballantyne, C.K.; Kirkbride, M.P.1986The characteristics and significance of some lateglacial protalus ramparts in upland BritainEarth Surface Processes and Landforms11659-67101979337 (ISSN)10.1002/esp.3290110609; and linear protalus ramparts of inferred Loch Lomond Stadial age are widespread in upland Britain outside the limits of contemporaneous glaciers. Survey and analysis of the morphology of nine ramparts suggests that these may have formed at the foot of slowly thickening snowbeds, with rockfall debris accumulating against their distal slopes, and that snowbed melting at the end of the stadial was uninterrupted by prolonged periods of stability or renewed growth. Rampart sediments consist of poorly‐sorted assemblages of clasts with a variable infill of fines. Clast size and shape are strongly influenced by lithology, but rampart clasts are characteristically more angular and ‘slabbier’ than those of similar lithology in ice‐marginal moraines. Ramparts may also be distinguished from moraines by their location, morphology, lack of a true matrix of fines and absence of erratics, and from talus‐foot rock glaciers in terms of their width and the absence of flow structures. The mapped distribution of rampart altitudes across the Scottish Highlands displays a marked regional trend, with the lowest features in the west and south and highest in the Cairngorms. This pattern mirrors that of reconstructed firn line altitudes of Loch Lomond Stadial glaciers, and is inferred to reflect a pronounced eastwards and northwards decline in snowfall during the stadial. Copyright (C) 1986 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Ballantyne, C.K.; Schnabel, C.; Xu, S.2009Exposure dating and reinterpretation of coarse debris accumulations ('rock glaciers') in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Quaternary Science2419-310267-817910.1002/jqs.1189://WOS:000262615700003; rock glaciers have considerable potential for contributing to palaeoclimatic reconstruction, but this potential is often undermined by lack of dating control and problems of interpretation. Here we reinvestigate and date four proposed 'rock glaciers' in the Cairngorm Mountains and show that the morphology of only one of these appears consistent with that of a true rock glacier produced by creep of underlying ice or ice-rich sediment. All four features comprise rockslide or rock avalanche runout debris, and the possibility that all four represent unmodified runout accumulations cannot be discounted. Surface exposure dating of the four debris accumulations using cosmogenic Be-10 produced uncertainty-weighted mean ages of 15.4 +/- 0.8 ka, 16.2 +/- 1.0 ka, 12.1 +/- 0.6 ka and 12.7 +/- 0.8 ka. All four ages imply emplacement under cold stadial conditions, two prior to the Windermere Interstade of ca. 14.5-12.9 cal. ka BP and two during the Loch Lomond Stade of ca. 12.9-11.5 cal. ka BP. The above ages indicate that paraglacial rock-slope failure on granite rockwalls occurred within a few millennia after deglaciation. The mean exposure ages obtained for runout debris at two sites - Strath Nethy (16.24 +/- 1.0 ka) and Lairig Ghru (15.4 +/- 0.8 ka) - are consistent with basal radiocarbon ages from Loch Etteridge, 22km to the southwest (mean= 15.6 +/- 0.3 cal. ka BP) and imply widespread deglaciation of the Cairngorms and adjacent valleys before 15 ka and possibly 16 ka. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ballantyne, C.K.; Small, D.2018The Last Scottish Ice SheetEarth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of EdinburghCambridge University Press1-3917556910 (ISSN)10.1017/s1755691018000038; last Scottish Ice Sheet (SIS) expanded from a pre-existing ice cap after ∼35 ka. Highland ice dominated, with subsequent build-up of a Southern Uplands ice mass. The Outer Hebrides, Skye, Mull, the Cairngorms and Shetland supported persistent independent ice centres. Expansion was accompanied by ice-divide migration and switching flow directions. Ice nourished in Scotland reached the Atlantic Shelf break in some sectors but only mid-shelf in others, was confluent with the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) in the North Sea Basin, extended into northern England, and fed the Irish Sea Ice Stream and a lobe that reached East Anglia. The timing of maximum extent was diachronous, from ∼30–27 ka on the Atlantic Shelf to ∼22–21 ka in Yorkshire. The SIS buried all mountains, but experienced periods of thickening alternating with drawdown driven by ice streams such as the Minch, the Hebrides and the Moray Firth Ice Streams. Submarine moraine banks indicate oscillating retreat and progressive decoupling of Highland ice from Orkney–Shetland ice. The pattern and timing of separation of the SIS and FIS in the North Sea Basin remain uncertain. Available evidence suggests that by ∼17 ka, much of the Sea of the Hebrides, the Outer Hebrides, Caithness and the coasts of E Scotland were deglaciated. By ∼16 ka, the Solway lowlands, Orkney and Shetland were deglaciated, the SIS and Irish Ice Sheet had separated, the ice margin lay along the western seaboard, nunataks had emerged in Wester Ross, the ice margin lay N of the Cairngorms and the sea had invaded the Tay and Forth estuaries. By ∼15 ka, most of the Southern Uplands, the Firth of Clyde, the Midland Valley and the upper Spey valley were deglaciated, and in NW Scotland ice was retreating from fjords and valleys. By the onset of rapid warming at ∼14.7 ka, much of the remnant SIS was confined within the limits of Younger Dryas glaciation. The SIS, therefore, lost most of its mass during the Dimlington Stade. It is uncertain whether fragments of the SIS persisted on high ground throughout the Lateglacial Interstade. Copyright (C) The Royal Society of Edinburgh 2018
Ballantyne, C.K.; Whittington, G.1999Late Holocene floodplain incision and alluvial fan formation in the central Grampian Highlands, Scotland: chronology, environment and implicationsJournal of Quaternary Science14651-6710267-817910.1002/(sici)1099-1417(199912)14:7<651::Aid-jqs469>3.3.Co;2-t://WOS:000084359100003; section cut across an alluvial fan and the underlying floodplain terrace in the central Grampian Highlands provides an unusually complete record of late Holocene events. At ca. 2.7-2.4 cal kyr BP floodplain aggradation was replaced by net floodplain incision. Pollen evidence and charcoal counts provide no evidence for contemporaneous anthropogenic landscape change, and the timing of the transition suggests that it reflects an increase in high-magnitude erosive flood events following overall climatic deterioration. The overlying fan was deposited by torrential hyperconcentrated flows during three brief storm-generated depositional events at ca. 2.2-2.1, 1.9-1.8 and 0.9-0.7 cal kyr BP, separated and succeeded by prolonged periods of stability and peat accumulation. During these three events, a cumulative total of ca. 6750 m(3) of sediment was deposited, probably in no more than a few hours over a timescale of two millennia. These findings imply that proposed links between human activity and the development of alluvial fans or debris cones require reassessment, and that different elements of the Holocene alluvial landscape have responded in different ways to the same climatic inputs. Aggregation of dating evidence relating to aggradation or incision of alluvial landforms at different scales therefore may produce misleading results. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Barber, K.E., et al.2000Replicated proxy-climate signals over the last 2000 yr from two distant UK peat bogs: new evidence for regional palaeoclimate teleconnectionsQuaternary Science Reviews19481-4870277-379110.1016/s0277-3791(99)00102-x://WOS:000086176500001; Feat is an established sourer: of proxy-climate data but previous records have been produced by different methods and have been difficult to compare. High-resolution plant macrofossil analysis has been applied to a lowland raised bog at Fallahogy, Northern Ireland, and a montane blanket bog, Moine Mhor in the Cairngorms, Scotland. Although the bogs are 300 km apart and differ floristically, the results demonstrate parallel responses to climatic forcing, especially that of the Little Ice Age. This approach provides a powerful tool for reconstructing proxy-climate records wherever suitable Feat deposits exist. In contrast to the ocean and ice core records these proxies are from a terrestrial source, and related to climate changes on land over most of the Holocene. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Battarbee, R.W., et al.2001Evidence for Holocene climate variability from the sediments of a Scottish remote mountain lakeJournal of Quaternary Science16339-3460267-817910.1002/jqs.597://WOS:000169009600006; resolution sampling of sediment cores covering approximately the last 4000 yr from Lochan Uaine, a small corrie tech in the Scottish Cairngorm Mountains, show quasiperiodic cycles in organic matter (measured as percentage loss on ignition). Analysis of these cycles show correspondences between loss on ignition, delta (13)C values and chironomid head capsule abundance. We interpret the changes as reflecting changes in lake productivity and hypothesise that they are driven by climate variability. However, it is not yet clear whether the periods of relatively high organic matter production and preservation are associated with colder or with warmer conditions. Nevertheless the results indicate the value of using sediments from remote, undisturbed mountain lakes as recorders of Holocene climate variability. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bayfield, N.G.1974Burial of vegetation by erosion debris near ski lifts on Cairngorm, ScotlandBiological Conservation6246-25100063207 (ISSN)10.1016/0006-3207(74)90002-0; extent of accelerated erosion from ground damaged near ski lifts was found to have reached a peak in about 1969, with a marked decline since then. This decline was attributable to reseeding of damaged ground, provision of drains and grading of dirt roads. Burial experiments showed that where erosion debris had covered vegetation, recovery at best took several years, and with depths above about 7 cm, was almost negligible. (C) 1974.
Bayfield, N.G.1979Recovery of four montane heath communities on Cairngorm, Scotland, from disturbance by tramplingBiological Conservation15165-17900063207 (ISSN)10.1016/0006-3207(79)90038-7; montane heath communities on Cairngorm, Scotland, were subjected to human trampling and the initial damage and subsequent recovery recorded over a period of eight years. Damage increased with the level of trampling but some species showed delayed damage; substantial die-back occurring during the following winter, or even later. A few species such as Trichophorum cespitosum rapidly replaced lost cover, but most species recovered very slowly. Observation over a substantial period seems necessary to assess the responses of slow growing mountain vegetation to disturbance by trampling. (C) 1979.
Bayfield, N.G.1980Replacement of vegetation on disrurbed ground near ski lifts in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Biogeography7249-2600305-027010.2307/2844631://WOS:A1980KK77800003;
Bayfield, N.G.1984The dynamics of heather ( Calluna vulgaris) stripes in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Ecology72515-52700220477 (ISSN)10.2307/2260063; stripes of wind blasted heather separated by bare ground occur on exposed hill shoulders in the Cairngorms. The stripes have a slightly convex, bare surface on the windward side, and a concave surface on the leeward side which is colonized by vegetation. Calluna vulgaris is the principal species present; the associated species vary at different sites. The stripes move at about 9 mm yr-1 in the direction of the prevailing wind, by erosion at the crest and new growth in the trough. Seedlings occur mainly in front of the advancing stripes. They make little growth and do not usually survive longer than about 25 months. Mortality is greatest in spring. The stripes may have formed directly by colonization of bare ground moulded by the wind, or by the dieback of heather on the crests of moulded ground during a period of inclement climate.-from Author
Bayfield, N.G.1986Penetration of the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, by vehicle tracks and footpaths: impacts and recoveryLucas, R.C.Proc. national wilderness research conference, Fort Collins, 1985General Technical Report - USDA, Forest Service, INT-212121-128 overall policy is needed to reduce the impact of both tracks and footpaths.-from Author
Bayfield, N.G.; Fraser, N.M.; Calle, Z.1998High altitude colonisation of the Northern Corries of Cairn Gorm by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)Scottish Geographical Magazine114172-1790036-922510.1080/00369229818737048://WOS:000078646200005; by Scots pine of ground up to 850 m in the Northern Corries of Cairn Corm has been taking place for about 40 years, since the fencing of lower ground for commercial forestry and reductions in grazing pressure from red deer. Sapling densities were monitored in 1984 and 1994 along fixed transects. The highest densities were generally in the western corries of the series, but there were also substantial numbers in the ski area and in the eastern corries. The highest densities above 650 m were in the ski area. There were more saplings on ridges than in corries, and fewer than expected in mire vegetation. Densities increased between 1984 and 1994, with a higher proportion of seedlings to saplings at the second analysis. The age structure showed a slow progression towards that recorded for the natural tree-line at Creag Fhiaclach. Outside the part of the area designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest it might be possible to speed up the progression by additional planting or other measures.
Bayfield, N.G.; Nolan, A.J.1998Vegetation and soils of the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment, Cairngorm mountainsScottish Geographical Magazine11418-210036-922510.1080/00369229818737022://WOS:000074407800005;
Bayfield, N.G.; Penny, M.G.; Moyes, S.M.1982An indicator species analysis of map squares and vegetation in the CairngormsTransactions, Botanical Society of Edinburgh4435-4710.1080/03746608208685412; Indicator Species Analysis (ISA) of data taken from O.S. 1:25,000 maps produced 8 map-square types. Vegetation was recorded in random 200 m2 quadrats in each map square type, and ISA produced 16 vegetation groups. The vegetation classification can be used in the field by means of a dichotomous key. Using the frequencies of the vegetation groups in each map-square type, the proportions of the vegetation groups in any area of the Cairngorms can be predicted. -Authors
Bayfield, N.G.; Urquhart, U.H.; Cooper, S.M.1981Susceptibility of 4 species of Cladonia to disturbance by trampling in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Applied Ecology18303-3100021-890110.2307/2402497://WOS:A1981LL00500024;
Bayfield, N.G.; Urquhart, U.H.; Rothery, P.1984Colonisation of bulldozed track verges in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Applied Ecology21343-3540021-890110.2307/2403058://WOS:A1984SR75800025;
Bell, J.; Stockdale, A.2015Evolving national park models: The emergence of an economic imperative and its effect on the contested nature of the 'national' park concept in Northern IrelandLand Use Policy49213-2260264-837710.1016/j.landusepol.2015.08.002://WOS:000367105800021; park models have evolved in tandem with the emergence of a multifunctional countryside. Sustainable development has been added to the traditional twin aims of conservation and recreation. This is typified by recent national park designations, such as the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland. A proposed Mournes national park in Northern Ireland has evolved a stage further with a model of national park to deliver national economic goals envisaged by government. This seeks to commodify the natural landscape. This paper compares Cairngorm and Mourne stakeholders' views on the principal features of both models: park aims, management structures and planning functions. While Cairngorm stakeholders were largely positive from the outset, the model of national park introduced is not without criticism. Conversely, Mourne stakeholders have adopted an anti-national park stance. Nevertheless, the model of national park proposed possessing a strong economic imperative, an absence of the Sandford Principle as a means to manage likely conflicts, and lacking any planning powers in its own right, may still be insufficient to bring about widespread support for a Mourne national park. Such a model is also likely to accelerate the degradation of the Mourne landscape. Competing national identities (British and Irish) provide an additional dimension to the national park debate in Northern Ireland, Deep ideological cleavages are capable of derailing the introduction of a national park irrespective of the model proposed. In Northern Ireland the national park debate is not only about reconciling environmental and economic interests but also political and ethno-national differences. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bennett, M.R.; Glasser, N.F.1991The glacial landforms of Glen Geusachan, cairngorms: A reinterpretationScottish Geographical Magazine107116-12300369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369229118736819;; former glacier is described in Glen Geusachan similar to that identified by Sissons (1979), which probably dates from the Loch Lomond Stadial. However, the “hummocky moraine” within these glacial limits is reinterpreted here as an assemblage of individual ice-marginal landforms. It implies that the Loch Lomond Stadial deglaciation in Glen Geusachan was characterized by active retreat, the stages and pattern of which are described. (C) 1991, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Birkel, C., et al.2010Towards a simple dynamic process conceptualization in rainfall-runoff models using multi-criteria calibration and tracers in temperate, upland catchmentsHydrological Processes24260-2751099-108510.1002/hyp.7478://WOS:000274048300003; based understanding of streamflow generation dynamics in a montane headwater catchment formed the basis for the development of simple, low-parameterized, rainfall-runoff models. This study was based in the Girnock catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland, where runoff generation is dominated by overland flow from peaty soils in valley bottom areas that are characterized by dynamic expansion and contraction of saturation zones. A stepwise procedure was used to select the level of model complexity that could be supported by field data. This facilitated the assessment of the way the dynamic process representation improved model performance. Model performance was evaluated using a multi-criteria calibration procedure which applied a time series of hydrochemical tracers as an additional objective function. Flow simulations comparing a static against the dynamic saturation area model (SAM) substantially improved several evaluation criteria. Multi-criteria evaluation using ensembles of performance measures provided a much more comprehensive assessment of the model performance than single efficiency statistics, which alone, could be misleading. Simulation of conservative source area tracers (Gran alkalinity) as part of the calibration procedure showed that a simple two-storage model is the minimum complexity needed to capture the dominant processes governing catchment response. Additionally, calibration was improved by the integration of tracers into the flow model, which constrained model uncertainty and improved the hydrodynamics of simulations in a way that plausibly captured the contribution of different source areas to streamflow. This approach contributes to the quest for low-parameter models that can achieve process-based simulation of hydrological response. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Birnie, R.V.1986Pixel-mixing effects and their significance to identifying snow condition from LANDSAT MSS dataInternational Journal of Remote Sensing7845-85301431161 (ISSN)10.1080/01431168608948894; measurements on snow in LANDSAT MSS wavebands have shown a correlation between snow condition and the ratio of green/infrared (band 4/band 7) wavebands. Systematic changes from wet dense snow at low altitudes to dry less dense snow at higher altitudes should be revealed by a decrease in the intensity ratio band 4/band 7 with altitude. However, analysis of spring LANDSAT MSS images for the Cairngorm Mountains shows that the intensity ratio band 4/band 7 actually increases with altitude. A mixed-pixel hypothesis is invoked to account for this pattern. The results suggest that only in areas where the snow cover is continuous can information on snow condition be reliably obtained from LANDSAT MSS data. (C) 1986 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Blackstock, K., et al.2011Co-researching the Cairngorms: Supporting the Aims of, not just Researching in, the Cairngorms NationalParkScottish Geographical Journal12740-601470-254110.1080/14702541.2011.579573://WOS:000291266100003;'s two national parks (Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs) represent a new institutional approach to the governance of protected areas, with a wider focus on sustainable development and working in partnership as well as protecting natural and cultural heritage. The stated purpose of the Cairngorms national park, as presented in its plan (CNPP), is to achieve its four aims in a collective and coordinated way. Our ongoing evaluation of the plan development and implementation found that stakeholder deliberations tended to focus on three broad objectives: to protect its special qualities, to deliver sustainable development and to integrate potentially competing interests. The paper reflects on the role the Scottish research community could play in supporting the delivery of the CNPP and therefore the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000 using these three objectives to structure the analysis. The paper ends with five recommendations for how researchers can work 'with', not just 'in' or 'on' Scottish national parks. These suggestions have application beyond the specific context of the Cairngorms, as the paper speaks to researchers' social contract with society and the requirement to demonstrate the relevance and impact of research.
Blackstock, K.L.; Dinnie, E.; Dilley, R.2017Governing the Cairngorms National Park - Revisiting the neglected concept of authorityJournal of Rural Studies5212-200743-016710.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.03.005://WOS:000403630200002; paper draws attention to the neglected sociological concept of authority, arguing that fresh attention to authority, and its relationship with legitimacy, is needed to extend our understanding of the practices and outcomes of rural governance. However, the foundational theory of authority needs updating to recognise the multiple modes of authority and attention should be paid to how they are enacted, by whom and in what circumstances. The paper updates debates on whether there is a missing category beyond Weber's traditional tripartite distinction between traditional, charismatic and legal-rational authority. The paper uses empirical evidence from a five year ethnographic study of the development and implementation of a strategic National Park Plan to explore what is meant by an 'enabling Authority' and the difficulties experienced. The results suggest that a portfolio of modes of legitimate authority are enacted, drawing attention to how authority and legitimacy are more complex and hybrid than the foundational theory suggests. The tensions in utilising multiple sources of authority speak to wider discussions about rural governance of multi-functional spaces and places. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blackstock, K.L., et al.2009Necessary but not sufficient: Tools for analysing multi-scale integrated eco-social systemsAnderssen, R.S.; Braddock, R.D.; Newham, L.T.H.18th World Imacs Congress and Modsim09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation: Interfacing Modelling and Simulation with Mathematical and Computational SciencesNedlandsUniv Western Australia2871-2877978-0-9758400-7-8 paper describes the application of the DECOIN toolkit to a UK regional level case study. DECOIN is a set of three tools to help us understand the social metabolism of multi-level systems. The overall purpose of the study is to use the toolkit to assess trends in sustainability at national, sectoral and regional levels within six European case studies and to assess the utility of such assessments to policy makers. The DECOIN tools are advanced methods for bio-economic accounting at multiple levels over time, to illustrate trajectories of development. It focuses on the concept of social metabolism that draws attention to how energy, material, money and ideas are utilised by society, drawing on natural capital and generating material, waste and social outputs. This paper will focus on the required first step in the application of the toolkit to illustrate the relationship between the impact of using tools, the meaning associated with tool results and the formalisms within the tools themselves. These inter-relationships illustrate the problem of letting the tools drive the analysis and measuring what we can measure, rather than the actual issues that matter to the wider society. The steps for the application of the tools as outlined by their proponents focus on how to integrate the three formal models with less explicit emphasis on agreeing the problem orientation for the application of the tool or the normative interpretations of why we should do these analyses and what the results might mean. However, without agreeing these normative aspects, the tools are likely to lack salience, relevance and credibility with their potential end users. Therefore, we recognised that we had to establish the semantic approach that would frame the way that the formalisms can be applied for the case study. We used participatory system diagramming to establish what were perceived to be the main elements of the system and their important inter-relationships. This was particularly important for our case study, a National Park, whose statutory basis is to enable sustainable development whilst safeguarding natural and cultural heritage, providing a complex set of interactions within the Park and also the flows into and out of the Park to the surrounding region. This was done three times, once within the scientific study team itself, once with members of the National Park Authority Staff and once from a content analysis of documents that reflect a normative vision based on consultation processes. The paper will illustrate how the outcomes of the diagrams made many aspects of sustainable development visible that the formal models cannot, or do not, measure. These elements in turn have helped shape the trade-offs and synergies that the toolkit has been designed to calculate, demonstrating the importance of this semantic step in the process.
Blockeel, T.L.; Rothero, G.P.; Long, D.G.2009Tortula inermis and Schistidium helveticum, two mosses from Scotland, new to the British IslesJournal of Bryology31174-1790373-668710.1179/174328209x455262://WOS:000271485500004; inermis and Schistidium helveticum are reported and illustrated from the Water of Ailnack in the eastern Cairngorms of Scotland. Both species are newly recorded for the British Isles, and are noteworthy in Scotland because of their primarily southern distribution in Europe and the Mediterranean region. Both species occur on seasonally dry, friable soil on ledges and outcrops of conglomerate rock. The locality is in a region with a relatively cool, continental climate, but there is no evidence to suggest that these species are recent colonists at the site.
Blyth, J.F.; Macleod, D.A.1981Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in North-East Scotland I. Relationships between site factors and growthForestry5441-620015752X (ISSN)10.1093/forestry/54.1.41;; yield class of Sitka spruce and climatic, physiographic and soil variables were measured in seventy-three 0.01 ha plots within 12 forest blocks distributed throughout north-east Scotland. Plots were classified into three geographical groups (Northern, Deeside and Perthshire) and four elevation zones (50-150 m, 150-250 m, 250-350 m and 350-450 m). When all plots are considered together growth is positively correlated with soil temperature during the growing season and with winter rainfall. Growth is also significantly correlated with elevation, position-on-slope and topex, but not with aspect or slope. Total N of the organic layer shows the highest correlation of all site variables with growth, and, along with total P, it is the most consistently correlated variable within blocks and groups of forests. Several negative associations exist between growth and acetic and nitric acid extractable K. Within the two middle elevation zones growth on serpentine soils is significantly lower than that on soils developed from acidic parent material. For the whole region growth on major soil groups decreases in the order: brown earth > podzol > gleyed podzol > gley but within some forest blocks, such as Kirkhill, gleys support higher growth than freely drained soils. At higher altitudes climatic limitations override the influence of drainage. (C) 1981 Oxford University Press.
Bonjean, M.C.; Hutchins, M.; Neal, C.2007Acid episodes in the Allt a'Mharcaidh, Scotland: an investigation based on sub-hourly monitoring data and climatic patternsHydrology and Earth System Sciences11340-3551027-560610.5194/hess-11-340-2007://WOS:000244861400010; waters in the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment (Cairngorms, Scotland) have been monitored for flow, conductivity and pH at sub-hourly resolution; and for a range of chemical, biological and physical parameters, less intensively, since the mid-1980s. The Allt a'Mharcaidh stream is subject to acidic events (pH<5.5) triggered by both hydrology and sea-salt inputs from the atmosphere. This paper investigates the drivers of these acidic events using variables derived from sub-hourly monitored data. It also examines the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on episode severity. Sub-hourly datasets are used to derive multiple regression models expressing stream H+ concentration as a function of the sea-salt conductivity and the peak instantaneous flow rate amongst other explanatory variables. The relationship between sea-salt conductivity and the NAO is significant but hidden due to issues such as time lags and the influence of atmospheric patterns other than the NAO.
Brazier, V.; Ballantyne, C.K.1989Late Holocene debris cone evolution in Glen Feshie, western Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences8017-2402635933 (ISSN)10.1017/s0263593300012244; river erosion of three coalescing debris cones in Glen Feshie has exposed a complex sequence of debris flow units. Radiocarbon dating of organic matter from interbedded buried soils reveals that the soil at the base of the sequence was buried at c. 2000 yr BP, but that the bulk of the cones accumulated since the fifteenth century AD. The episodic nature of cone development is attributable to lateral migration of the River Feshie, with periods of cone accumulation when the river occupied the far side of its floodplain alternating with periods of erosion when the river impinged on the cones. There is no evidence to suggest that recent cone accumulation is related to anthropogenic vegetation disturbance, but phases of cone accumulation show a broad temporal correspondence with periods of Late Holocene climatic deterioration. The cones are essentially paraglacial in that their continuing accumulation depends on a supply of sediment derived from glacial and periglacial deposits upslope. The form of debris-flow units indicates that flows at this site were less viscous than most ‘hillslope’ flows, and cone volumes indicate an average annual accumulation of c. 50–60 m3 of sediment over the past c. 300years. (C) 1989, Royal Society of Edinburgh. All rights reserved.
Brazier, V.; Kirkbride, M.P.; Gordon, J.E.1998Active ice-sheet deglaciation and ice-dammed lakes in the northern Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandBoreas27297-3100300-9483://WOS:000078941200006; of ice-marginal and glaciolacustrine deposits in the northern Cairngorm Mountains allows the nature of deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum (c.18 000 BP) to be reinterpreted. Two ice-dammed lakes were ponded between the Glenmore lobe of the Scottish ice sheet and local glaciers draining northwards from the Cairngorm Mountains. Delta progradation from the southern end of each lake reflects dominant meltwater sources and glacio-hydrological gradients. Sediment facies representing subaqueous mass-flow deposits, lake-bottom rhythmites, lower and upper foresets and topsets are associated with prograding delta fronts. Moraines show that the lakes were ice dammed at both ends, evidence that active glaciers existed in the Cairngorm Mountains while ice was retreating from Strath Spey, and that deglaciation was punctuated by readvances of the ice margin. These results indicate that an ice-stagnation model of deglaciation is invalid for most of the duration of ice wastage, but instead support an active-retreat hypothesis with multiple, climatically forced readvances.
Britton, A.J.; Fisher, J.M.2007Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, fire and grazing on diversity and composition of low-alpine prostrate Calluna vulgaris heathlandJournal of Applied Ecology44125-1350021-890110.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01251.x://WOS:000243023600014; Low-alpine heathlands world-wide have high biodiversity value but are increasingly impacted by the effects of nitrogen deposition as well as fire and grazing. We conducted a 5-year fertilization experiment to examine the interactive effects of these three factors on vegetation diversity and species composition. 2. Factorial combinations of nitrogen addition (0, 10, 20 and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), burning (burned once or not burned) and grazing (annual clipping, 0% or 12% of current year shoots removed) were applied to internationally important prostrate Calluna-Cladonia heathland in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Species diversity (higher plants, mosses and lichens) and percentage cover were recorded annually. 3. Fire had a large effect on vegetation diversity and composition, but both were quick to recover. Species richness recovered within 4 years and vegetation composition was predicted to recover within 7 years. Vegetation composition appeared resilient to the effects of disturbance and there was little invasion by graminoids. 4. Nitrogen deposition interacted with fire. Burned plots showed no significant effect of nitrogen treatment on species diversity, while the diversity of unburned plots was significantly reduced only 1 year after treatment with 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). After 5 years, significant diversity reductions were seen in the 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) treatment. Impacts of nitrogen on species richness were primarily through reductions in lichen diversity. 5. Severe winter browning of Calluna vulgaris in plots receiving 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) followed early snowfall in 2002-03. This interaction affected only Calluna vulgaris and may have the potential to trigger species composition changes by reducing the dominance of this species. 6. Synthesis and applications. Although resilient to small-scale fires, species richness of low-alpine heaths is reduced by exposure to low levels of nitrogen deposition (background + 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). The lichen component of the vegetation is most sensitive to additional nitrogen, although higher plants can be affected via interactions with climate. These data support the current critical load of nitrogen for this community of 5-15 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and suggest that lichen diversity could be a useful indicator of nitrogen deposition impacts in alpine habitats. Effective conservation of biodiversity in low-alpine heathland will require action at national and international levels to reduce nitrogen deposition in the many areas where the critical load is currently exceeded.
Britton, A.J., et al.2011An integrated assessment of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes across an oceanic alpine toposequencePlant and Soil345287-3020032-079X10.1007/s11104-011-0781-3://WOS:000292999700022; ecosystems are predicted to be severely affected by climate change. Cold, wet oceanic-alpine environments may also accumulate large total ecosystem carbon (C) pools, but have rarely been investigated. We assessed C pools and fluxes on a toposequence of oceanic-alpine habitats from blanket mire and boreal Calluna heath to Racomitrium heath, Nardus snowbed and alpine Calluna heath. We quantified C pools in vegetation and soils for each habitat and compared these with C inputs from net primary production (NPP) and outputs via decomposition, measured in a 3-year litter bag experiment. We also investigated principle drivers (temperature, moisture, community composition) of C pool and flux differences between habitats. Total ecosystem C pools were large; 11-26 kg C m(-2) in alpine habitats and 50 kg C m(-2) in blanket mire. Within the alpine zone C storage was greatest in the snowbed. Litter decomposition was slow in all habitats (k = 0.09-0.29 y(-1)) while NPP was within the range reported for continental alpine systems. C pool sizes and C fluxes did not vary consistently with altitude but reflected topographic gradients of temperature and moisture within the alpine zone. Oceanic-alpine ecosystems contain large stores of C which may be vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
Brook, A.J.; Williamson, D.B.1983On staurastrum botrophilum wolle, a rare and inadequately described desmidBritish Phycological Journal1869-7200071617 (ISSN)10.1080/00071618300650081; paper provides a new and much more complete description than that previously published, with line drawings and photomicrographs, of the rare desmid Staurastrum botro- philum Wolle. Two new British localities, one in Cumbria, the other in Leicestershire, are added to the one Scottish (Cairngorm) record for this species. (C) 1983 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Brooker, R.W., et al.2018Tiny niches and translocations: The challenge of identifying suitable recipient sites for small and immobile speciesJournal of Applied Ecology55621-6300021-890110.1111/1365-2664.13008://WOS:000424881800016; Assisted colonisation, one form of species translocation, has been proposed as a tool for helping species to track suitable conditions in a changing climate. There are considerable practical challenges associated with it, including predicting where to place translocated individuals. This problem may be particularly big for small and immobile species, where small-scale microenvironmental conditions de-couple them from environmental conditions as projected in large-scale climate models. 2. To investigate this problem, we developed a survey-based model to predict the occurrence of our target species, the fruticose terricolous arctic-alpine lichen, Flavocetraria nivalis, within the Cairngorm Mountains. 3. We then undertook an experimental translocation of this species. A second model, using variables that were significant in the survey-based model, was only fair at predicting the initial pattern of survival at the recipient site. 4. However, model fit of the translocation survival model improved over time as the distribution of surviving individuals more accurately reflected the distribution of suitable environmental conditions. In addition, model predictive power increased with the addition of data on microclimatic conditions at recipient plots. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that, for species which respond strongly to local environmental conditions, are immobile and, to some extent, decoupled from larger scale climates, it may be difficult to build a priori accurate predictive models of habitat suitability. In these cases, a combination of modelling and expert judgement, along with the movement of substantial numbers of transplants, may be the appropriate options for maximising the success of assisted colonisation.
Brooks, S.M.; Richards, K.S.1994The significance of rainstorm variations to shallow translational hillslope failureEarth Surface Processes and Landforms1985-940197-933710.1002/esp.3290190107://WOS:A1994MT57800006; in eastern Scotland results from high-magnitude rainstorms generated under either cyclonic or anticyclonic conditions, particularly during the summer. Data from Aviemore indicated that cyclonic storms produce higher rainfall totals than anticyclonic storms, as well as being of longer duration and lower intensity. The distribution of rain during individual storms also varies with the synoptic conditions under which the storms are produced. These different rainfall characteristics produce different geomorphic responses, which can be investigated in detail using physical based modelling. In this paper, a physically based coupled hydrology-stability model is used to assess the significance of these rainfall characteristics to soil moisture response and slope instability for mature podsols. The results provide evidence that rainstorms of different synoptic origin produce varying hydrological response, involving both the extent and the timing of moisture content change. This affects the depth and timing of slope failure, with anticyclonic storms promoting a large, rapid response in the factor of safety at shallow depths within the soil. Cyclonic storms produce a more gradual response, with the region of probable failure being deeper. Futhermore, each of these storm types is associated with different rainfall distributions, and this is also shown to have a significant effect on the timing and depth of slope instability.
Brown, I.M.1994Former glacial lakes in the Dee valley: origin, drainage and significanceScottish Journal of Geology30147-15800369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg30020147 geomorphological and sedimentological evidence is presented for a series of ice-marginal lakes in tributary valleys of lower Deeside. They developed during ice-sheet deglaciation due to damming by glacier ice which remained in the main valley. Drainage of these lakes occurred by both marginal and subglacial routes; in the latter case, the sudden outburst may be responsible for anomalously coarse flood deposits found downstream. It is argued that glacial lakes were a much more common feature of the deglacial landscape than recent reviews have suggested and their presence at the ice margin may have glaciological implications, as inferred by the often distinctive landform-sediment assemblages involved. -Author
Brown, K.M.2015Leave only footprints? How traces of movement shape the appropriation of spaceCultural Geographies22659-6871474-474010.1177/1474474014558987://WOS:000362336000007The tracks people leave behind in the landscape are more than mere imprints on the ground. They are traces that can work to shape peoples' claims to particular spaces, both materially and semiotically. This article examines the ways in which such mark-making is caught up in contestations over the legitimate use of spaces deemed wild' and natural'. It draws upon a mobile and video ethnographic study of walkers and mountain bikers in the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland, to explore how the marks made on the ground through outdoor recreation become caught up in struggles over appropriate ways to move one's body in nature. Here, a process of informal zoning is identified whereby walkers belong in mountains but mountain bikers do not. Emerging from the analysis are the ways in which footprints and tyre-tracks are constituted and contested as damage' in relation to mountain spaces, and thus used to ascribe or distance culpability from different modes of mobility: walking versus cycling. Particular attention is paid to how such configurations serve as the grounds for excluding certain recreational users from particular outdoor spaces. This article thus identifies traces of movement, and the ways in which they are rendered visible' or natural' in talk, action and terrain, as key territorialising devices. In particular, a social and cultural treatment of the environmental impacts of outdoor recreation highlights how absence, as well as presence, of traces can be a powerful device for staking claims to space. The analysis also prompts a greater appreciation of the role of surfaces in constituting particular natures (such as mountains) as natural and wild, and how particular subjects, ways of moving and technologies are implicated, (de)naturalised and disciplined therein.
Brown, K.M.2015The Role of Landscape in Regulating (Ir)responsible Conduct: Moral Geographies of the 'Proper Control' of DogsLandscape Research4039-560142-639710.1080/01426397.2013.829811://WOS:000348514200004; of outdoor access involve the regulation of people and animals as together they constitute particular landscapes. Conduct is ordered through law and moral norms to avert or minimise harm to people, livestock, wildlife and wider ecologies. This paper examines dogwalking in the Cairngorms National Park, illustrating how conceptions and experiences of landscapes and animals combine to shape the ability to co-exist across species boundaries. Drawing on a study using video methods, it investigates how 'wildness' and allied notions of 'freedom' and 'escape' are mobilised in practice to produce particular (ir)responsible cross-species encounters, and how joint human-animal conduct-specifically the 'control' of dogs-is geographically constituted. A tension emerges between well-being and countryside regulation: the well-being associated with experiencing 'freedom' and the 'control' required by law for multispecies flourishing. The findings contribute to broader debate on how landscapes matter in the achievement of ethical animal-human relations.
Brown, K.M.2016The role of belonging and affective economies in managing outdoor recreation: Mountain biking and the disengagement tipping pointJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism-Research Planning and Management1535-462213-078010.1016/j.jort.2016.07.002://WOS:000387982000006; Biking is seen as important activity for growing outdoor recreation participation. Increasingly places are marketed as mountain biking places with supporting legal rights of access in place. However, in this study of the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland as in many places, mountain bikers are not always made very welcome on the ground by managers and other users. This disjuncture between promotion and provision of facilities and embodied experience can lead to mixed messages being received by mountain bikers and create challenges for the regulation of outdoor recreation which relies heavily on informal norms. This paper explores how this disjoint is experienced by participants on the ground and how it affects the ability of mountain biking to co-exist with more established activities, and wider ecologies. It shows that such inconsistences or a lack of welcome could come at a price for coexistence, pointing in particular to how feelings of belonging and disbelonging can work to develop constructive or destructive affective economies, which profoundly shape how boundaries of outdoor citizenship are enacted. Notably, we find that a'disengagement threshold' can be reached when a mountain biker's experience of feeling'alien' ('other' or less-than-citizen) develops into more entrenched feelings of being alienated, whereupon they give up striving for acceptance and became disconnected from informal normative agency. The paper thus re-centres emotions as crucial in understanding how outdoor recreation is regulated through the formal and informal disciplining of moving bodies, and highlights belonging as an under-acknowledged and under-utilised mechanism of management. MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS A sense of belonging, and associated emotional economies, are under-acknowledged and under-utilised mechanisms of outdoor recreation management. Mountain bikers receive mixed messages regarding their welcome in the outdoors as their participation is encouraged by proponents of health and business but resisted in practice by some land managers, recreation managers and other users through social interactions and material infrastructure. There are implications for regulating mountain biking and any mixture of outdoor activities or participants-of creating sense of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Attempts to limit mountain biking especially within the legal entitlement can be ineffective or even have the opposite effect. Inducing guilt or 'feeling bad' in such a recreationist perceived to be acting inappropriately does not necessarily lead to more appropriate behaviour. A more overt multi-use ethic may aid co-existence and safety (e.g. walkers and mountain bikers expecting and attuned to each other). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryce, R., et al.2011Turning back the tide of American mink invasion at an unprecedented scale through community participation and adaptive managementBiological Conservation144575-5830006-320710.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.013://WOS:000287168100062; eradications of harmful invasive species have been mostly confined to islands while control programs in mainland areas remain small, uncoordinated and vulnerable to recolonisation. To allow the recovery of threatened native species, innovative management strategies are required to remove invasives from large areas. We took an adaptive approach to achieve large scale eradication of invasive American mink in North East Scotland. The project was centred on the Cairngorms National Park (Scotland), with the primary aim of protecting endangered water vole populations. The project was initiated by scientists and supported and implemented through a partnership comprising a government agency, national park authority and local fisheries boards. Capitalising on the convergent interests of a diverse range of local stakeholders, we created a coordinated coalition of trained volunteers to detect and trap mink. Starting in montane headwaters, we systematically moved down river catchments, deploying mink rafts, an effective detection and trapping platform. Volunteers took increasing responsibility for raft monitoring and mink trapping as the project progressed. Within 3 years, the project removed 376 mink from 10570 km(2) with the involvement of 186 volunteers. Capture rate within sub-catchments increased with greater connectivity to mink in other sub-catchments and with proximity to the coast where there is more productive habitat. The main factor underpinning the success of this project was functional volunteer participation. The project is a reason for optimism that the tide of invasion can be rolled back on a large scale where the convergent interest of local communities can be harnessed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burges, A.1951The ecology of the Cairngorms 3. The Empetrum-Vaccinium zoneJournal of Ecology39271-2840022-047710.2307/2257912://WOS:A1951YD68200003;
Busby, J.; Gillespie, M.; Kender, S.2015How hot are the Cairngorms?Scottish Journal of Geology51105-1150036-927610.1144/sjg2014-027://WOS:000363743600001Heat flow measured over the East Grampians batholith in the 1980s was found to be unexpectedly low and at odds with high radiogenic heat production within the outcropping granites and a very large volume of granite predicted from an interpretation of gravity data. Past climate variations perturb temperature gradients in the shallow subsurface leading to erroneous estimates of heat flow. A reconstruction of the surface temperature history during the last glacial cycle has enabled a rigorous palaeoclimate correction to be applied to the heat flow that shows an increase of 25% over previously reported values; revised to 86 +/- 7 mW m(-2). An interpretation of recent mapping reveals that the surface exposures of the East Grampians granites are the roof zones of a highly evolved magma system. Rock composition, therefore, is likely to become more mafic with depth and the heat production will decrease with depth. This petrological model can be reconciled with the gravity data if the shape of the batholith is tabular with deep-seated feeder conduits. The increased heat flow value leads to revised predictions of subsurface temperatures of 129 degrees C at 5 km depth and 176 degrees C at 7 km depth, increases of 40% and 49%, respectively, compared to previous estimates. These temperatures are at the lower end of those currently required for power generation with Engineered Geothermal Systems, but could potentially be exploited as a direct heat use resource in the Cairngorm region by targeting permeable fractures with deep boreholes.
Campbell, R.N.1971The growth of brown trout Salmo trutta L. in northern Scottish lochs with special reference to the improvement of fisheriesJournal of Fish Biology31-2800221112 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1095-8649.1971.tb05902.x; paper is based on the investigation of 173 lochs in Scotland from which a total of over 4700 brown trout were examined. Twenty‐four of the lochs, all in northern Scotland, and their trout populations, were selected for detailed comparison in an attempt to identify environmental factors that might affect the growth rate of trout. The lochs probably represented the full range of main standing water habitats in the region‐ranging from a saline loch in the Outer Hebrides to one in a sub‐arctic environment high on the Cairngorm plateau in the Central Highlands. The study indicates that for practical purposes the growth rate of trout is negatively correlated with population density. Some suggestions for improving brown trout lochs, based on the findings of this paper, are included. Copyright (C) 1971, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Canova, M.A., et al.2019Different ecosystem services, same (dis)satisfaction with compensation: A critical comparison between farmers' perception in Scotland and BrazilEcosystem Services35164-1722212-041610.1016/j.ecoser.2018.10.005://WOS:000457119300018; for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes have increasingly expanded to consider ecosystem services (ESS). In Brazil, the Forest Code permits PES but does not specify the scheme operationalization. The way ESS should be quantified and valued has not yet been implemented country-wide, nor has the funding source for PES. Through interviews with farmers in Rio Claro-SP, Brazil, and in Cairngorms National Park in the highlands and lowlands of Scotland, UK, we compared farmers' perspectives concerning ESS and PES, focusing on the PES implementation in sugarcane landscape in Sao Paulo state. While Scottish farmers perceived more cultural services, Brazilian farmers focused on regulating services, which we attribute to socio-political and landscape differences. Despite these differences, farmers in both areas preferred opportunity cost approach for ESS valuation because this method captures efforts to maintain ESS. Thereby, the opportunity cost should be considered for valuation in PES schemes, but conversely, budgetary constraints make it impossible to satisfy farmers with PES in regions of high productivity in the southeast of Brazil. Lessons learned concerning the PES subsidies in Scotland indicates the importance of co-designing schemes with stakeholders, minimizing trade-offs between the environment. Therefore, the participants as ESS providers, beneficiaries and intermediaries in the public policies arena was recognized for co-optimize the trade-offs between costs and effectiveness in PES.
Cape, J.N., et al.2001Organic nitrogen in precipitation: real problem or sampling artefact?TheScientificWorldJournal1 Suppl 2230-2371537744X (ISSN)10.1100/tsw.2001.278; observations of organic nitrogen (N) compounds in precipitation go back almost a century. Several different methods have been used to measure both the total and ionic concentrations of N. There is therefore some uncertainty as to whether reported "organic N" is real, or simply the result of uncertainties in chemical analyses or inadequate sampling methods. We found that the materials from which the collector was made (polypropylene, steel, or glass) had no significant effect on the composition of dissolved organic N (DON). The use of a biocide was found to be very important during sampling and storage of samples before analysis. We set up a network of seven collectors across the U.K., from the Cairngorms to Dorset, all operating to the same protocol, and including a biocide. Samples were analysed centrally, using proven methods. Over 6 months, organic N contributed about 20% to the total N in U.K. precipitation, but with a large variation across the country. This means that current estimates of wet deposited N to the U.K., which are based only on the ammonium and nitrate concentrations, are too small. Organic N is not an artefact, but a real problem that needs to be addressed.
Capell, R., et al.2011Using hydrochemical tracers to conceptualise hydrological function in a larger scale catchment draining contrasting geologic provincesJournal of Hydrology408164-1770022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.034://WOS:000295607000014; year-long multivariate tracer study in the 749 km(2) catchment of the North-Esk in north east Scotland was carried out to infer the dominant runoff generation processes in two markedly different geologic provinces. The upper 60% of the catchment has montane headwaters dominated by impermeable metamorphic rocks, steep topography, peaty soils and a sub-arctic climate with over 1400 mm of precipitation. The lowlands of the catchment are underlain by a major sandstone aquifer, and mainly have freely draining, fertile soils that support intensive arable farming under a drier climate with around 800 mm of precipitation. Storm runoff in the uplands is dominated by near-surface processes in soils and sedimentary layers which generate around 60% of annual stream flows with water of low alkalinity and ionic strength. In contrast, tributaries in the lower parts of the catchment are dominated by groundwater-fed base flows which account for 75% of annual runoff and are characterised by alkaline waters with high concentrations of base cations and high levels of nitrate. Multivariate statistical methods were used to derive a generic typology of catchment source waters, their spatial and temporal dynamics and particularly, how they integrate together at the larger catchment scale. The uplands dominate the winter high flow response of the whole catchment. The influence of lowland groundwater from major aquifers becomes more apparent under low flows. However, groundwater from small upland aquifers plays a critical role for ecosystem service in dry periods providing baseflows which dilute pollutant inputs from lowland areas at the large catchment scale. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Capell, R.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.2013Will catchment characteristics moderate the projected effects of climate change on flow regimes in the Scottish Highlands?Hydrological Processes27687-6991099-108510.1002/hyp.9626://WOS:000315359400006; climate models were used with the UKCP09 weather generator to downscale outputs from the HadCM3 General Circulation Model, to project climate change by 2050 in the Scottish Highlands. The resulting hydroclimatic data were used to drive a tracer-aided hydrological model to assess likely changes in flow regimes in three experimental catchments. These are located along a hydroclimatic transect from the wet, mild western Highlands (Strontian), through the colder, more continental central Highlands (Allt a' Mharcaidh), to the drier eastern Highlands (Girnock). At all sites, temperatures are projected to increase by around 2 degrees C, with associated increases in potential evapotranspiration. Precipitation is expected to increase by around 1015% at Strontian but remains slightly changed at the Allt a' Mharcaidh and Girnock. However, the seasonal distribution of precipitation is projected to change, increasing in winter and decreasing in summer. Cautious interpretation of model outputs indicates that flows are likely to change accordingly at all sites, though the characteristics of each catchment result in some subtle differences. At Strontian, marked increases in winter high flows are expected, at the Allt a' Mharcaidh, reduction in winter snowfall and reduced snowpack will increase winter high flows and moderate the influence of spring melts. In the Girnock, decreasing summer low flows are the most notable element of change. These subtle differences in response to climatic drivers are consistent with the distinct storage characteristics of the catchments which in turn reflect their landscape evolution histories. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Carter, C.1981Skiing versus conservation: a Cairngorm controversy ( Scotland)Planner67134-135 the Highland Regional Council gave planning permission for the development of further skiing facilities in 1980 the decision aroused such an outcry that a public inquiry was held in 1981. This article presents the case of both sides, and concludes that it is the first example of an inquiry where the opposing sides represent different views of recreational use in a scenic area.-A.Gilg
Carter, G.2001'Domestic geography' and the politics of Scottish landscape in Nan Shepherd's the living mountainGender, Place and Culture825-360966369X (ISSN)10.1080/09663690120026307; its exploration of the reading possibilities of a domestic geography metaphor, this article highlights an engagement with the natural worm as both embodied experience and textual practice in Nan Shepherd's neglected prose work. The Living Mountain. Domestic geography is intended as a pathway which shows how the structure and content of this text are inseparable and, by highlighting the complex narrative arrangement of The Living Mountain, privileges the textual representation of an engagement with the natural world from the perspective of a native dweller. In unearthing this forgotten native perspective on the Scottish landscape, the article examines how Shepherd uncovers the hidden ideological nature of the dominant discourses-of science, history romanticism and landscape aesthetics-which hove come to define the Scottish landscape. Drawing on the limited biographical material available on Shepherd, and in a close reading of the text itself, the article shows that both the Cairngorm Mountains and the manuscript of The Living Mountain were an important part of Shepherd's everyday space.
Carver, S., et al.2012A GIS model for mapping spatial patterns and distribution of wild land in ScotlandLandscape and Urban Planning104395-4090169-204610.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.11.016://WOS:000300070000010; paper presents a robust and repeatable method for mapping wildness in support of decisions about planning, policy and management in protected landscapes. This is based around the application of high resolution data and GIS models to map four attributes of wildness: perceived naturalness of land cover, absence of modern human artefacts in the landscape, rugged and challenging nature of the terrain, and remoteness from mechanised access. These are combined using multi-criteria evaluation and fuzzy methods to determine spatial patterns and variability in wild land quality. The approach is demonstrated and tested for the two national parks in Scotland: the Cairngorms National Park and the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park. This is presented within a wider debate on the ability of such models to accurately depict and spatially define the concept of wildness within both the Scottish setting and the wider global context. Conclusions are drawn as to scalability and transferability, together with potential future applications including local and national level mapping, and support for landscape character assessment, planning policy and development control. Maps of the wild land core, buffer and periphery areas of the two parks are presented. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Catt, D.C., et al.1998Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994Biological Conservation85257-2670006-320710.1016/s0006-3207(97)00171-7://WOS:000075407400005; capercaillie Tetrao urogallus L. is a cryptic forest gamebird which has decreased in Scotland, as in much of its range, since the 1970s. Despite previous surveys of the bird's range in Scotland, there was no assessment of numbers giving confidence limits. Here we establish such a baseline against which future estimates may be set. Numbers were estimated from a combination of questionnaires, Geographical Information System (GIS) and advanced line transect techniques, using repeatable methodology which should be applicable to other cryptic forest species. The GIS was used to map capercaillie distribution and relative abundance in Scotland. Transects were then placed randomly within the bird's reported range, stratified by geographical region and estimated abundance rating. From observations on 426 2-km line transects in winters 1992-1993 and 1993-1994, the population was estimated to be 2200 birds (1500-3200, 95% C.L.) There were approximately twice as many females as males in the sample. Birds were present from the Forth-Clyde industrial belt northwards to the Dornoch Firth and from the Central Highlands eastwards. The main centres of population were in eastern and central Scotland (Deeside, Speyside and Perthshire). The highest densities were in native pinewoods (2.7-5.0 birds km(-2)), and the lowest were in thicket and pole/high canopy plantations (0.4-0.9 birds km(-2)). This information is being used to identify sites for enhancing capercaillie habitat under the Forestry Authority's Woodland Grant Scheme. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chapman, P.J.; Edwards, A.C.; Cresser, M.S.2001The nitrogen composition of streams in upland Scotland: some regional and seasonal differencesScience of the Total Environment26565-830048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(00)00650-1://WOS:000166784300008; nitrogen (N) composition of streams draining four upland regions of Scotland was compared in samples collected monthly between April 1997 and April 1998. Stream samples were analysed for total N (TN), particulate N (PN), nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), dissolved organic N (DON) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Concentrations of TN were small, generally less than 1 mg l(-1), dominated by dissolved forms of N, and varied significantly between upland regions. Nitrate accounted for most of the variability in TN; largest concentrations were observed in the Southern Uplands and smallest concentrations were observed in the Highlands. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with the percentage cover of improved grasslands and brown forest soils and negatively correlated with the percentage cover of peat. Concentrations of DON also varied between regions, but to a lesser extent than those of NO3. Largest concentrations occurred in SW Scotland and smallest concentrations in the Cairngorms. Although a significant positive correlation between DON and DOC was observed, stream water DON content was not related to the percentage cover of peat in the catchment, as was the case for DOG. The average DOC:DON ratio was narrower for streams in the Southern Uplands than for those in the Cairngorms and Highlands. Nitrate and DON displayed contrasting seasonal trends; NO3 concentrations were larger in the winter while DON concentrations were larger in the summer. Only a small proportion, < 8% and < 7%, of TN was PN and NH4, respectively, the majority of N was present as either NO3 or DON. Nitrate was the dominant fraction (58-65%) in all regions except the Highlands where DON accounted for 57% of TN. However, the relative importance of the DON component increased in the summer in all regions. This study has demonstrated that the DON fraction is an important component of the total N transported by streams from upland catchments in Scotland. Thus, assessments of anthropogenic impacts on N losses from upland ecosystems need to consider not only the dissolved inorganic species but also DON. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Chattopadhyay, G.P.1984A fossil valley-wall rock glacier in the Cairngorm mountainsScottish Journal of Geology20121-1250036-927610.1144/sjg20010121://WOS:A1984SW82000013
Chinner, G.A.1966The distribution of pressure and temperature during Dalradian metamorphismQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London122159-18600167649 (ISSN)10.1144/gsjgs.122.1.0159;; formation of sillimanite in association with the development of gneisses and migrnatites in the Grampian Highlands and north-eastern Scotland is interpreted as a later superimposition upon a slightly earlier metamorphic pattern characterized in its higher grades by andalusite and kyanite. This earlier pattern is subdivided by three significant isograds: (i) the andalusite isograd, along which andalnsite developed from hydrous mineral assemblages; (ii) a kyanite isograd, along which kyanite developed from hydrous mineral assemblages; and (iii) an andalusite-kyanite isograd, dividing the andalusite and kyanite zones. (i) and (ii) are interpreted as dehydration isograds, virtually isothermal; (iii) represents the polymorphic inversion of kyanite to andalusite, with a P/T slope of approximately 12.8 bars/degC. For some 50km southwards from the coastline along the Moray Firth on the western limb of the post-metamorphic Boyndie syncline, the andalusite and andalusite-kyanite isograds form virtually parallel traces; parallelism of isograds with such disparate P/T slopes suggests that isobars and isotherms in this region were parallel. In central Aberdeenshire the inversion isograd diverges from the andalusite isograd, an appears to run along Deeside to meet the kyanite isograd in the south. This is interpreted as indicating a divergence between isobars and isotherms; an antiformal monocline with approximately NE-SW axes is deduced for the thermal surface. To explain this disposition synmetamorphic monoclinal folding is suggested, in which pressure adjustment was instantaneous as sediments were depressed to deeper levels, but the heat content enabled pre-existing isothermal surfaces to be preserved.
Chinner, G.A.1980Kyanite isograds of Grampian metamorphismJournal of the Geological Society13735-3900167649 (ISSN)10.1144/gsjgs.137.1.0035 'Barrovian' isograd Ky 50 based on the coexistence with kyanite and staurolite of biotite M/FM = 50 forms a SW-NE trending loop extending from Deeside into Perthshire; fault displacement of the southern limb suggestsa north-westerly dip with high grade overlying low grade. The recumbent thermal anticline so delineated represents syn-metamorphic thermal disturbance, possibly due to the introduction of warm material with the upward and southward translation of the Tay nappe. In the 'Moray' zones, the putative pattern of isograd outcrop based on the argument that the andalusite-kyanite isograd marks the boundary between prograde hydration reactions and prograde dehydration reactions delineates a thermal trough correlated with the predominantly post-metamorphic Boyndie Syncline. (C) 1980 The Geological Society.
Chinner, G.A.; Heseltine, F.J.1979The grampide andalusite/kyanite isogradScottish Journal of Geology15117-12700369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg15020117 of 'regional' from 'contact' andalusite in the vicinity of the newer granite intrusions of Aberdeenshire suggests that the andalusite/kyanite isograd runs as far south as Glen Callater before turning north east to pass along Deeside. The nature of the critical conjunction between this 'solid' isograd and the 'dehydration' kyanite isograd is still obscure but if we assume the Battock intrusion to have wedged the two apart, then both would dip to the north, the kyanite isograd surface therefore being inverted.
Clapperton, C.M.; Gunson, A.R.; Sugden, D.E.1975Loch Lomond Readvance in the eastern CairngormsNature253710-71200280836 (ISSN)10.1038/253710a0; far in the Cairngorm Mountains it has been impossible to confirm speculations about the physical extent of the glaciers of the Loch Lomond Readvance by absolute dating. As recently as 1970 it was therefore possible to argue without contradiction for anything between a full Scottish ice sheet and a handful of corrie glaciers1. Subsequentevidence from the adjacent Spey Valley precludes the former possibility2,3, and attention is now focused on the possibility that there was restricted ice cover about the time of the Loch Lomond Readvance. Evidence from the vicinity of Loch Builg, at an altitude of 525 m in the eastern Cairngorms, throws further light on the problem. (C) 1975 Nature Publishing Group.
Clark, A.M.; Fejer, E.E.1976Zoned Genthelvite from Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandMineralogical Magazine40637-6390026-461X10.1180/minmag.1976.040.314.11://WOS:A1976BT53100011;
Clark, P.D.P.1995Forestry in GrampianForestry68175-1850015-752X10.1093/forestry/68.3.175-a://WOS:A1995RP78300001;, Scotland's third largest region in terms of both land area and population, has a long history of forestry. In spite of past over-exploitation and natural disaster the woodland area is now one of the most extensive and productive in Britain and supports a thriving wood-using industry. Timber production is expected to double over the next 20 years. As well as being economically important, the region's forests are valued for their role in recreation, their place in the landscape and the habitats they provide for wildlife. Woodland expansion has continued steadily throughout the latter half of this century and seems likely to continue. Two exciting potential developments are the proposed Forest of Mar in upper Deeside and the Grampian Forest in the wider Buchan area.
Clark, S.H.E.2003Insect faunas associated with the fossil remains of Pinus sylvestris L. in blanket peat from northeast ScotlandScottish Geographical Journal11939-520036-922510.1080/00369220318737161://WOS:000185037800003; stumps have been found preserved in blanket peats at altitudes of up to 793 m OD in Scotland. Radiocarbon dating by other researchers has demonstrated that these sites were not all contemporary, but most fall within the mid-Holocene period. Palynological, dendrochronological and stable isotope analyses have previously been carried out on these fossil pine stumps, but not palaeoentomological analysis. This paper reports on the results of an analysis of the fossil beetle remains from two of these sites in the Caimgorms, Monaltrie Moss and a moss on the Mar Lodge estate. The insect faunas indicate that acidic wetland was colonised by pine trees, which developed into mature woodland. The dominance of saproxylic (deadwood) faunas in comparison to those associated with healthier trees suggests that the woodland was always under stress. The pine fauna at Mar Lodge was replaced by montane wetland species once the pine trees died out.
Clarke, C.A.; Sheppard, P.M.1963Frequencies of the melanic forms of the moth Biston Betularia (L.) on Deeside and in adjacent areasNature1981279-128200280836 (ISSN)10.1038/1981279a0;
Clyne, N.1872DeesideNotes and Queriess4-IX8100293970 (ISSN)10.1093/nq/s4-IX.213.81-a
Cobbing, P.; Slee, B.1993A contingent valuation of the mar lodge estate, cairngorm mountains, scotlandJournal of Environmental Planning and Management3665-7209640568 (ISSN)10.1080/09640569308711927; contingent valuation method is applied to the economic valuation of a significant environmental resource in the Scottish Highlands. Use and non-use values are estimated. The results of such studies might be used to assist decision makers assess the case for public intervention to support the provision of environmental non-market goods. (C) 1993, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Collen, P.; Keay, E.J.; Morrison, B.R.S.2004Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, ScotlandHydrology and Earth System Sciences8567-5771027-560610.5194/hess-8-567-2004://WOS:000225543000025; rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation. of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites oil the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day(-1)) and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day(-1)). Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features. in the form of woody debris, to streams.
Comber, A.J.; Birnie, R.V.; Hodgson, M.2003A retrospective analysis of land cover change using a polygon shape indexGlobal Ecology and Biogeography12207-2150960-744710.1046/j.1466-822X.2003.00028.x://WOS:000182184100004; This study tests the hypothesis that the propensity of land cover patches to change is related to their shape and geometric complexity. Location The analysis is based on a 1000-km(2) area of the Cairngorms in Scotland, incorporating part of Speyside and the high plateau area within the Grampian Mountains. Methods A combined dataset was created by intersecting 1964 land cover data (derived from archive aerial photography) and 1988 land cover data (from the Land Cover of Scotland dataset). A shape index was calculated for each land cover polygon inside a GIS. Information on land cover change was analysed with reference to land cover class and the polygon shape index using a regression analysis. Results For upland seminatural land cover classes, subject to low levels of management, change is related to polygon shape, such that the more complex patches were found to be more susceptible to change. This relationship breaks down where classes are more intensively managed or have been aggregated into mosaic classes. Conclusions Propensity to change was related to shape index for seminatural land cover classes. This implies that at least some landscape processes, such as anthropogenic disturbance of seminatural land covers, can be linked to ecological theory via measurements of spatial pattern. The study also highlighted some of the cartographic issues involved in estimating changes between land cover classes: there are advantages in replacing the 'cartographic paradigm' of comparing two derived datasets (in this case land cover maps) with direct comparison of the digital data - air photographs or satellite imagery. Such a direct approach avoids the compounding of errors introduced by the approximation of each successive air photo as a thematic map.
Coppins, B.J.1985A New Micarea From The Scottish HighlandsThe Lichenologist1799-10100242829 (ISSN)10.1017/s002428298500010x; new terricolous Micarea (M. viridiatra sp.nov.) is described from the Cairngorm Mountains. It is similar and apparently closely allied to M. turfosa. (C) 1985, British Lichen Society. All rights reserved.
Coppock, J.T.1980Conflict in the Cairngorms: price of progressGeographical Magazine52417-425 conflicts between tourism/recreation and environmental conservation is greater in the Cairngorms than anywhere else in the UK. A sensitive area of great scenic quality is threatened by developments which reflect the political will to revitalize the economy of rural areas and provide employment. The Aviemore Centre is a unique development which has proved a great success so that now expansion is under consideration. Some of the main points of conflict are examined. -E.Turner tourism environmental conservation Cairngorms UK Aviemore Centre user conflicts
Coupland, J.B.1994Factors influencing nuisance blackfly (Diptera, Simuliidae) activity in the Scottish HighlandsMedical and Veterinary Entomology8125-1320269-283X10.1111/j.1365-2915.1994.tb00151.x://WOS:A1994NE12900005; nuisance activity of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) was investigated in several habitats on Speyside, near Kincraig (57-degrees-08'N. 3-degrees-56'W), Invernesshire, in central Scotland during May-October 1987-89. The main blackfly species caught landing/biting on humans were Simulium reptans, S. argyreatum, S. variegetum and the S.tuberosum complex, in order of prevalence. Blackfly biting activity occurred from mid-May to mid-September. Numbers of female blackflies attracted to volunteers were correlated with their body posture, habitat and the season. Overall, Simulium activity was greatest in mixed birch/juniper forest, least in spruce plantations and at intermediate levels on pasture, moorland and in Scots Pine forest. Compared with an adult, a child experienced twice as many Simulium bites per hour (12.2 v 6.3) in the birch forest. On the child's body, 69% of blackflies landed on the head, neck and back, whereas the majority landed on the legs (48%) and arms (28%) of adults. Bending over, especially during the exertion of gardening, was more attractive to anthropophilic blackflies than standing or kneeling.
Crabtree, B.; Bayfield, N.1998Developing sustainability indicators for mountain ecosystems: a study of the Cairngorms, ScotlandJournal of Environmental Management521-140301-479710.1006/jema.1997.0159://WOS:000072239500001; paper describes the development of a set of sustainability indicators for the Cairngorms, an ecologically and economically fragile mountain area in NE Scotland. It takes as a starting point the OECD pressure-state-response (PSR) framework for environmental indicators and adapts this for application in a sustainability context However it is argued that indicators must be developed from an understanding of the processes that link human activity to environmental change and policy response. An expert group was assembled to identify the underlying processes and propose indicators that would be useful for the agency which has responsibilities for sustainable management of the Caimgorms. In selecting indicators a thematic approach was used in which PSR indicators were derived in the context of 18 socio-economic, environmental and institutional themes. Indicators were selected on the basis of feasibility of measurement and an informal cost-benefit analysis of the contribution of information in a policy context It was concluded that to improve the use of indicators for sustainability assessment a greater understanding of economic-environmental processes is required, and performance indicators need to be developed which incorporate a comparison of current state with policy defined capacity criteria. (C) 1998 Academic Press Limited.
Crabtree, D.; Ellis, C.J.2010Species interaction and response to wind speed alter the impact of projected temperature change in a montane ecosystemJournal of Vegetation Science21744-7601100-923310.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01184.x://WOS:000279450200011; How does an improved understanding of species interactions, combined with an additional ecological variable (wind speed), alter the projected vegetation response to variation in altitudinal temperature? Location Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Methods Montane heathland vegetation was sampled from 144 plots (432 quadrats) comprising eight altitudinal transects. Ordination by partial DCA and path analysis was used to confirm: (1) the effect of wind speed and altitude (approximate to temperature) on vegetation structure, i.e. canopy height and cover of bare ground, and (2) the control of arctic/alpine macrolichen occurrence by vegetation structure. Nested regression analysis was used to project the response of vegetation structure and lichen occurrence to temperature change scenarios with and without a step-wise change in future wind speed. Results Warming trends shifted vegetation zones upwards, with a subsequent loss of suitable habitat for arctic/alpine lichens. However, incorporating wind speed as an additional explanatory variable had an important modifying effect on the vegetation response to temperature: decreasing wind speed exaggerates the effects of increased temperature and vice versa. Our models suggest that for the wind-driven heath examined, a 20% increase in mean wind speed may negate the effect of increased temperature on vegetation structure, resulting in no net change in lichen occurrence. Conclusions We caution that an improved understanding of species interactions in vegetation response models may force the consideration of locally variable environmental parameters (e.g. wind speed), bringing into question the predicted vegetation response based on standard projections of temperature change along altitudinal gradients.
Crossley, A.; Fowler, D.1986The weathering of Scots pine epicuticular wax in polluted and clean airNew Phytologist103207-2180028646X (ISSN)10.1111/j.1469-8137.1986.tb00609.x; surfaces of Pinus sylvestris L. were examined at three sites, two in clean air (SO2 < 10 μg m−3) at Saltoun, (altitude 200 m) and Cairngorm (400 m) and one in polluted air (SO2 c 40 μg m−3) at Gorple (300 m). Needles one, two and (where available) three years old were sampled during the period July 1981 to March 1982. Needle longevity was greater at the two clean air sites where 50 % of two year old needles were present compared with only 10% at the polluted site. The physical structure of epicuticular wax was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The wax tubes shortened, thickened and fused into an amorphous surface ‘crust’ with time. The rate of this‘weathering’ declined logarithmically. A constant (k) was denned as the weathering constant for this process. Values of/? (months−1) differed significantly between sites (Saltoun 0.061 ±0.01, Cairngorm 0.084 + 0.012 and Gorple 0.154±0.013). In addition to faster weathering, needles at the polluted site were heavily contaminated with particulate debris, much of which had the physical characteristics of pulverized fuel ash that is produced by large coal combustion sources. During‘weathering'the surface layer of tubular wax crystals show a marked increase in thickness from ∼ 130 nm for newly exposed needles to 220 nm after 30 months old. No significant inter‐site differences in the rate of change in tube width were noted. Copyright (C) 1986, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Curran, J.C., et al.1977Cairngorm summit automatic weather stationWeather3261-6300431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1977.tb04513.x;
Curry-Lindahl, K.; Watson, A.; Watson, R.D.1982The future of the CairngormsThe future of the Cairngorms.North East Mountain Trust, PO Box 25, Crown Street, Aberdeen0950818607 (ISBN); 9780950818603 (ISBN) Cairngorms are a mountain wilderness in Scotland subject to a variety of development pressures, including forestry, recreation and ski development, which need to be balanced with the nature conservation values of the area. These threats and conflicts are analysed and the existing regulations aimed at the area's protection are reviewed. Recommendations are then proposed to strengthen the protection of the wilderness values based on international standards.-R.Land
Curtis, C.J., et al.2006How important is N2O production in removing atmospherically deposited nitrogen from UK moorland catchments?Soil Biology & Biochemistry382081-20910038-071710.1016/j.soilbio.2006.01.013://WOS:000240183900008; (NOD leaching due to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is an environmental problem in many parts of the UK uplands, associated with surface water acidification and affecting lake nutrient balances. It is often assumed that gaseous return of deposited N to the atmosphere as N2O through denitrification may provide an important sink for N. This assumption was tested for four moorland catchments (Allt a'Mharcaidh in the Cairngorms, Afon Gwy in mid-Wales, Scoat Tarn in the English Lake District and River Etherow in the southern Pennines), covering gradients of atmospheric N deposition and surface water NO3- leaching, through a combination of field and laboratory experiments. Field measurements of N2O fluxes from static chambers with and without additions of NH4NO3 solution were carried out every 4 weeks over I yr. Wetted soil cores from the same field plots were used in experimental laboratory incubations at 5 and 15 degrees C with and without additions of NH4NO3 Solution, followed by measurement of N2O fluxes. Field measurements showed that significant N2O fluxes occurred in only a very small number of plots with most showing zero values for much of the year. The maximum fluxes were 0.24 kg-N/ha/yr from unamended plots at the River Etherow and 0.49 kg-N/ha/yr from plots with NH4NO3 additions at the Allt a'Mharcaidh. Laboratory incubation experiments demonstrated that large N2O fluxes could be induced by warming and NH4NO3 additions, with the top 5 cm of soil cores responsible for the largest fluxes, reaching 11.8 kg-N/ha/yr from a podsol at Scoat Tarn. Acetylene block experiments showed that while N-2 was not likely to be a significant denitrification product in these soils, reduced N2O fluxes indicated that nitrification was an important source of N2O in many cases. A simple model of denitrification suggesting that 10-80% of net N inputs may be denitrified from non-agricultural soils was found to greatly over-estimate fluxes in the UK uplands. The proportion of deposition denitrified was found to be much closer to the IPCC suggested value of 1% with an upper limit of 10%. Interception of N deposition by vegetation may greatly reduce the net supply of N from this source, while soil acidification or other factors limiting carbon supply to soil microbes may prevent large denitrification fluxes even where NO3- supply is not limiting. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davies, T.D., et al.1992Heavily-contaminated snowfalls in the remote Scottish Highlands: A consequence of regional-scale mixing and transportAtmospheric Environment Part A, General Topics2695-11209601686 (ISSN)10.1016/0960-1686(92)90263-k; (black) snowfalls frequently occur in the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland), in spite of their relative remoteness from major source regions. The frequency of such pronounced events has been characterized throughout one complete snow season. Daily samples of snow were collected at 1100 m under sub-arctic conditions, and the reported results from the analyses of major ions and a large number of trace elements (dissolved and particulate phases) represent a novel precipitation chemistry data set. This paper focuses on the major ion, black carbon and particulate concentrations, but formic acid concentrations are also reported. The heavily-contaminated snowfalls are associated with back-trajectories which originate in the east (Eastern Europe, European U.S.S.R. and the Baltic) and, in spite of providing a small proportion (30%) of the total snowfall, produce the bulk of the pollutant wet deposition (e.g. 70% of non-marine SO42-; 80% of black carbon). The covariances of the constituent concentrations indicate that airborne pollution is relatively aged and well-mixed before removal by the snowflakes. Back-trajectory, synoptic and upper-air analyses have been combined to produce a qualitative model of pollutant transport from source to receptor region. Once air is advected out of a (typically) long-lived anticyclone over Eastern Europe (which produces the regional-scale mixing), transport westwards of the 'regional plume' is usually associated with an elevated stable layer which can effectively decouple the plume from the surface and inhibit dispersion. Over the North-Sea-NE Scotland region, horizontal convergence, convection and topographic uplift can all contribute to precipitation formation and pollutant wet deposition. Although there are indications that the NE Scottish Highlands are particularly susceptible to these 'black' snowfalls, comparison with data from monitoring stations within 35 km of the study site, and 600-800 m lower elevation, does not indicate enhancement of ion concentration in snowfall with increasing altitude. (C) 1991.
Davison, R.W.1986Winter weather and the supply of snow in eastern Highlands of Scotland: 1954/5 to 1983/4Research Discussion Paper - University of Edinburgh, Department of Geography21 part of a project concerned with the measurement of the natural potential of sites in Scotland for downhill skiing, data were required on wind speed and direction, precipitation and the relative supply of drifting snow to a number of sites. A database was developed. A period of thirty winters, from 1954/5 to 1983/4, is covered by the database, with each winter comprising the months of December to April inclusive. The study area, includes the Cairngorm Mountains and that part of the Grampian Highlands between Beinn a' Ghlo and Lochnagar. -from Author
Demars, B.O.L.; Edwards, A.C.2007A seasonal survey of surface water habitats within the River Spey basin, Scotland: major nutrient propertiesAquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems17565-5831052-761310.1002/aqc.797://WOS:000250067000003; Current monitoring strategies of governmental organizations tend to be focused on relatively large flowing and standing waters, and until recently those polluted by point sources. Consequently areas of high conservation interest tend to be understudied, and defining reference conditions, as required by current legislation, is difficult to achieve. 2. In order to address this imbalance, water samples have been collected and analysed once in each of four seasons during 2003 from 72 locations within a 100 km(2) area of the oligotrophic River Spey catchment in NE Scotland. The sampling design included examples of running water (headwater streams and the main rivers) and standing water (lochs, lochans, pools, ditches, backwaters, bogs). Attitude ranged from 220 to 980 in and incorporated a climatic regime from cool temperate to subalpine. Each sampling campaign targeted low-flow conditions to evaluate steady-state nutrient concentrations. 3. Concentrations of the major soluble nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus demonstrated high spatial and temporal variability, with soluble organic and molybdate unreactive forms generally being dominant. Concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and soluble reactive phosphorus were extremely small, with 50% of samples falling below 8, 5 and 1 mu g L-1, respectively, during spring and summer. 4. Sampling sites were grouped either by water-body type or by the properties of their immediate biophysical zone. Together these two groupings explained 33-38% of the variance in water chemistry. Certain changes were detectable across most habitats and biophysical zones. 5. A decline in the concentration of nitrate that occurred in reaches downstream from certain headwater streams draining the mountain areas indicated the potential for its within-stream utilization. Inorganic N dynamics differed between small streams and large rivers. 6. Landscape scale patterns were recorded in spring and summer nutrient availability with inorganic N and P thresholds (arbitrarily defined) of 10 and 1 mu g L-1, respectively. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Derrick, I.; Nash, R.2013Stakeholder conflict and involvement in AviemoreTourism and Developments - Issues and ChallengesNova Science Publishers, Inc.209-2259781622573042 (ISBN) key tourism authors highlight the growing need for both stakeholder collaboration and community involvement in tourism development. The Highland resort of Aviemore suffered a period of dilapidation in the 1990's which saw a dramatic fall in reinvestment and visitor numbers. The beginning of the 21st century has seen levels of investment including the establishment of the Macdonald Aviemore Highland Resort however there have been reports of a level of conflict between this resort and the residents of Aviemore. This chapter investigates the levels of stakeholder conflict in Aviemore and the impact that this has or may have on the destination. The chapter also examines the level of stakeholder collaboration in its development and the general levels of development of Aviemore. Semi-structured interviews were used with 10 key stakeholder groups in Aviemore including public sector authorities, private sector businesses and with the Aviemore Highland Resort. A further 23 short survey interviews were conducted with residents of Aviemore which aimed to investigate opinions and attitudes towards the Aviemore Highland Resort. The results indicated that in regards to the development of Aviemore, there have been considerable levels of rejuvenation since the 1990's and the forecasted decline in skiing is not believed to be of a great threat to tourism in the area. However results into the development of the Aviemore Highland Resort supported the previously mentioned report of the resort-community conflict. This was said to be a result of the resort's poor public relations with the community and a lack of involvement in decision making. The chapter makes recommendations for the application of stakeholder collaboration theory as a way of implementing stakeholder involvement and to improve the resort-community relationship. (C) 2013 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dinnie, E.; Blackstock, K.L.; Dilley, R.2012Landscapes of Challenge and Change: Contested Views of the Cairngorms National ParkLandscape Research37451-4660142-639710.1080/01426397.2012.696598://WOS:000307933600005; Scottish model of national parks reflects wider changes in the management of special or protected landscapes. This paper uses Ingold's dwelling conceptualisation of landscape to reflect on how material and cultural processes affect stakeholders' perceptions of the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland, UK. Important to understanding different views, is the separation, unique to the Cairngorms, of 'the park' from its management organisation. The paper argues that this separation creates a conceptual space for the negotiation of contested claims regarding the park. Such claims reflect not only the relationship between people and place, or as Ingold (2000) puts it, the landscape as it is known to those who dwell in it; they also represent vested interests and regimes of power concerning what happens in specific places. These claims do not reproduce simple splits between, for example, public/private or conservation/development but show a more complex picture.
Dubois, A.D.; Ferguson, D.K.1985The climatic history of pine in the cairngorms based on radiocarbon dates and stable isotope analysis, with an account of the events leading up to its colonizationReview of Palaeobotany and Palynology4655-8000346667 (ISSN)10.1016/0034-6667(85)90038-7; Cairngorm Mountains in Northeast Scotland display abundant evidence for glaciation and ice-wastage. At the end of the Weichsel (Devensian) the deposits and open water became colonized by plants. The vegetational succession is briefly described, with particular reference to the establishment of pine before 7300 B.P. It is pointed out that macrofossils provide a much more trustworthy basis for investigating the history of Pinus sylvestris in the area. The nature of the macrofossils is described and their age discussed on the basis of the forty 14C dates obtained. These 14C age determinations form a framework for understanding the climatic history of the region. Cellulose from the wood-remains was investigated using the new technique of deuterium (δD) isotope analysis. The principles of this stable isotope analysis are explained and a relationship to precipitation proposed. These measurements indicate changes in the amount of precipitation in the course of the last eight thousand years. Excessively low δ D values are considered to be related to periods with very heavy rainfall. Such "pluvial" phases are now known to have occurred at about 7300 B.P., between 6200 B.P. and 5800 B.P., from 4200 B.P. until 3940 B.P. and about 3300 B.P. The presence of pine-stumps above the recent tree-line is mainly related to preservation, i.e. suitable climatic conditions for their envelopment by the blanket bog vegetation. Peat accumulation started at about 6000 B.P. as a result of a marked increase in precipitation and underwent rejuvenation at about 4200 B.P. This explains why the bulk of the stumps are referred to this period. No pines younger than 3200 B.P. have been found above 530 m. A climatic rather than a human cause is suggested for this decline. (C) 1985.
Dubois, A.D.; Ferguson, D.K.1988Additional evidence for the climatic history of pine in the Cairngorms, Scotland, based on radiocarbon dates and tree ring D/H ratiosReview of Palaeobotany and Palynology54181-18500346667 (ISSN)10.1016/0034-6667(88)90014-0; significance of radiocarbon dates and the D/H analysis of cellulose from pine-stumps is reappraised in the light of an article by Pears (1988). (C) 1988.
Duncan, J.S., et al.1978Ticks, louping ill and red grouse on moors in Speyside, ScotlandJournal of Wildlife Management42500-5050022-541X10.2307/3800810://WOS:A1978FN08300005;
Dunn, S.M.; Colohan, R.J.E.1999Developing the snow component of a distributed hydrological model: A step-wise approach based on multi-objective analysisJournal of HydrologyAmsterdam, NetherlandsElsevier Science B.V.2231-1600221694 (ISSN)10.1016/s0022-1694(99)00095-5; snow component has been developed for the distributed hydrological model, DIY, using an approach that sequentially evaluates the behaviour of different functions as they are implemented in the model. The evaluation is performed using multiobjective functions to ensure that the internal structure of the model is correct. The development of the model, using a subcatchment in the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland, demonstrated that the degree-day model can be enhanced for hydroclimatic conditions typical of those found in Scotland, without increasing meteorological data requirements. An important element of the snow model is a function to account for wind re-distribution. This causes large accumulations of snow in small pockets, which are shown to be important in sustaining baseflows in the rivers during the late spring and early summer, long after the snowpack has melted from the bulk of the catchment. The importance of the wind function would not have been identified using a single objective function of total streamflow to evaluate the model behaviour. A snow component has been developed for the distributed hydrological model, DIY, using an approach that sequentially evaluates the behaviour of different functions as they are implemented in the model. The evaluation is performed using multi-objective functions to ensure that the internal structure of the model is correct. The development of the model, using a sub-catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland, demonstrated that the degree-day model can be enhanced for hydroclimatic conditions typical of those found in Scotland, without increasing meteorological data requirements. An important element of the snow model is a function to account for wind re-distribution. This causes large accumulations of snow in small pockets, which are shown to be important in sustaining baseflows in the rivers during the late spring and early summer, long after the snowpack has melted from the bulk of the catchment. The importance of the wind function would not have been identified using a single objective function of total streamflow to evaluate the model behaviour.
Dunn, S.M.; Langan, S.J.; Colohan, R.J.E.2001The impact of variable snow pack accumulation on a major Scottish water resourceScience of the Total Environment265181-1940048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(00)00658-6://WOS:000166784300016; regions such as northern Scotland, where winter temperatures are such that the occurrence of snow is borderline under the present climate, potential changes affecting precipitation and temperature regimes may have a disproportionately large impact on snow processes and hydrological behaviour. The physical characteristics of mountainous areas in Scotland mean that the spatial variability of snowpack accumulation is high, as well as the temporal variability caused by the climate. There have been few modelling studies aimed at assessing the significance of snow resources in these areas and none that have adopted a spatially distributed approach. This paper describes the approach taken in applying a new distributed model to a headwater catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains. The results demonstrate the importance of wind on re-distributing snow to create deep accumulations in small sheltered pockets. These accumulations are shown to be important in sustaining baseflows in the rivers, long after snow has melted from the rest of the catchment. The model has also produced a first set of maps showing how predicted snow depths vary across the catchment through the winter. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Dybeck, M.W.; Green, F.H.W.1955The Cairngorms weather survey, 1953Weather1041-4800431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1955.tb00137.x;
Edwards, R.1996Downhill all the wayNew Scientist15036-39 series of intergovernmental meetings are planned to fulfill the international commitment to sustainable mountain development made at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. As part of this series, a conference is being held 22-26 April in Coylumbridge near Aviemore in the Cairngorms. The conference is aimed at establishing a strategy to preserve the fragile, decaying environment of Europe's mountains. The environmental crisis facing mountains from pollution, roads, ski developments and tourism is examined. The particular issues of conservation and development in the Cairngorms, in Snowdonia, in the Alps and in western Pyrenees are discussed.
Enkins, A., et al.1988A modeling study of long-term acidification in an upland Scottish catchmentWater, Air, and Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers40275-29100496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00163733A modeling study of the Allt a Mharcaidh catchment in the Cairngorm region of Scotland has been undertaken to investigate long term trends in acidification and model sensitivity to soil physical and chemical characteristics. The MAGIC model (Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments) is used to demonstrate that the sulphate adsorption ability of the soil and quality and quantity of rainfall inputs have significant effects on model output. Optimal weathering rates and predicted present day ion concentrations in streamwater compare well with measured and observed values. The analysis shows that the catchment has become progressively acidified since pre-industrial times but major changes in stream acidity have yet to occur. (C) 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Evely, A.C., et al.2008The influence of philosophical perspectives in integrative research: A conservation case study in the Cairngorms National ParkEcology and SocietyThe Resilience Alliance1317083087 (ISSN)10.5751/es-02679-130252; benefits of increasing the contribution of the social sciences in the fields of environmental and conservation science disciplines are increasingly recognized. However, integration between the social and natural sciences has been limited, in part because of the barrier caused by major philosophical differences in the perspectives between these research areas. This paper aims to contribute to more effective interdisciplinary integration by explaining some of the philosophical views underpinning social research and how these views influence research methods and outcomes. We use a project investigating the motivation of volunteers working in an adaptive co-management project to eradicate American Mink from the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland as a case study to illustrate the impact of philosophical perspectives on research. Consideration of different perspectives promoted explicit reflection of the contributing researcher's assumptions, and the implications of his or her perspectives on the outcomes of the research. We suggest a framework to assist conservation research projects by: (1) assisting formulation of research questions; (2) focusing dialogue between managers and researchers, making underlying worldviews explicit; and (3) helping researchers and managers improve longer-term strategies by helping identify overall goals and objectives and by identifying immediate research needs.
Everest, J.; Kubik, P.2006The deglaciation of eastern Scotland: Cosmogenic 10Be evidence for a Lateglacial stillstandJournal of Quaternary Science2195-10402678179 (ISSN)10.1002/jqs.961; nuclide analysis, using 10Be, has been used to date a Lateglacial stillstand in the Eastern Highlands of Scotland at 16.6-13.6 kyr BP. The dates constrain the extent of the local Cairngorm Ice Cap and the larger Scottish Ice Sheet at a particular stage during deglaciation. The geomorphological and sedimentological evidence suggests that the glacial stillstand persisted for around 1 kyr. Independent 14C dating from Loch Etteridge within Strathspey shows that deglaciation proceeded rapidly after ca. 15 kyr BP. Critically this study demonstrates that glaciers last occupied the valleys of the Cairngorms immediately prior to the Lateglacial interstadial (Bølling/Alleröd), contrary to previous assumptions that the last large-scale glaciation of the massif took place in the Loch Lomond Stadial (Younger Dryas). This later event in the Cairngorms was therefore confined to the high corries. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Farmer, J.G., et al.2015Development of recent chronologies and evaluation of temporal variations in Pb fluxes and sources in lake sediment and peat cores in a remote, highly radiogenic environment, Cairngorm Mountains, Scottish HighlandsGeochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta15625-490016-703710.1016/j.gca.2015.02.003://WOS:000352192100002; use of stable Pb isotope analyses in conjunction with recent (Pb-210 and anthropogenic radionuclide) chronologies has become a well-established method for evaluating historical trends in depositional fluxes and sources of atmospherically deposited Pb using archival records in lake sediment or peat cores. Such studies rely upon (i) simple radioactive disequilibrium between unsupported Pb-210 and longer-lived members of the U-238 decay series and (ii) well-defined values for the isotopic composition of contaminant Pb and indigenous Pb in the study area. However, areas of high natural radioactivity can present challenging environments for such studies, with potential complications arising from more complex disequilibria in the U-238 decay series and the occurrence, at local or regional level, of anomalous, ill-defined stable isotope ratios due to the presence of elevated levels of radiogenic Pb. Results are presented here for a study of a sediment core from a freshwater lake, Loch Einich, in the high natural radioactivity area of the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. U-238 decay series disequilibria revealed recent diagenetic re-deposition of both U and Ra-226, the latter resulting in a requirement to use a modified calculation to derive a Pb-210 chronology for the core. Confidence in the chronology was provided by good agreement with the independent Am-241 chronology, but the Cs-137 distribution was affected by significant post-depositional mobility in the organic-rich sediment. The systematics of variations in Th-230, Th-232 and stable Pb isotope ratio distributions were used to establish the indigenous Pb characteristics of the sediment. The relatively high radiogenic content of the indigenous Pb resulted in complications in source apportionment, in particular during the 20th century, with multiple natural and anthropogenic sources precluding the use of a simple binary mixing model. Consequently, Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios in Scottish moss samples from an archive collection were used to provide the input term for atmospheric deposition in order to establish historical trends in indigenous and anthropogenic Pb fluxes. A test of the accuracy of the derived Pb fluxes was provided by analysis of a core from a nearby blanket peat deposit, Great Moss. Independent atmospheric and basal inputs gave a complex distribution of Pb-210 in the peat, but this did not affect calculation of a Pb-210 chronology. Once again, the Pb-210 chronology was supported by the Am-241 distribution. Temporal trends in anthropogenic Pb deposition derived for the Loch Einich sediment core were in generally good agreement with those for the Great Moss peat core, other peat cores and some other lake sediment cores from northern Scotland, providing confidence in the use of the archive moss data to characterise atmospheric deposition. However, sustained input of Pb to Loch Einich sediment at relatively high levels in the late 20th century, after the regional decline in atmospheric Pb deposition, suggested that catchment-derived Pb is now a significant component of the depositional flux for Loch Einich. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, M.1988The use of the Cairngorm Mountains for recreation by organised groups from local centres. M.Sc. thesisUniversity of Aberdeen, Department of Geography the growth of recreation (excluding downhill skiing) in the Cairngorm mountains and describes the consequent environmental impacts. A survey of local centres that make use of the area with organised recreational groups was carried out. Activity distribution maps were plotted showing that the distribution of groups in the Cairngorms is strongly controlled by the location of access points - a finding which has important implications for the authorities involved in the planning and management of the area. Recreation Managers were found to be generally sympathetic towards the need to conserve the Cairngorms, aware of the importance of the area for nature conservation and appreciative of the damage that recreation may cause to the fragile mountain environment. The wider implications for the planning and management of the Cairngorms are highlighted. -from Author
Ferguson, M.; Adamson, J.1999The Cairngorms: challenges of managing a Scottish mountain landscapePrice, M.Global Change in the MountainsLancasterParthenon Publishing Group Ltd46-481-85070-062-1://WOS:000083583300017
Ferguson, R.I.1982Snowmelt runoff in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland - magnitude and predictionHydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques27254-2550262-6667://WOS:A1982NP70600202
Ferguson, R.I.1984Magnitude and modelling of snowmelt runoff in the cairngorm mountains, scotlandHydrological Sciences Journal2949-6202626667 (ISSN)10.1080/02626668409490921; in the River Feshie (106 km2) shows persistent diurnal oscillations from March to June when runoff augmented by snowmelt greatly exceeds precipitation. Diurnal amplitude and maximum daily runoff are comparable to a similar-sized Swiss glacier basin. Daily discharges in the springs of 1979 and 1980 are successfully simulated from daily air temperatures and precipitation using a lumped degree-day model based on Martinec’s model but with endogenous snowpack shrinkage at a rate proportional to melting. A best fit of R2 = 0.88 was achieved over 53 days in the unusually snowy season of 1979. The biggest errors are in simulating runoff from precipitation for which only lumped data are available. Best-fit parameter values are physically reasonable and only two parameters, describing the initial snowpack, need vary from year to year. (C) 1984 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Ferguson, R.I.1985High densities, water equivalents, and melt rates of snow in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandWeather40272-27700431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1985.tb06899.x;
Ferguson, R.I.; Morris, E.M.1987Snowmelt modelling in the Cairngorms, NE ScotlandTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences78261-26702635933 (ISSN)10.1017/s0263593300011196; modelling is of potential value in flood forecasting, reservoir management, and understanding stream acidification. It involves meteorological extrapolation, snowmelt calculation, meltwater routing, and snowpack depletion. A simple conceptual model using air temperature can reproduce the general pattern of daily streamflow in basins of >100 km2 but is prone to parameter instability. At a point scale and with the benefit of automatic weather station data the energy balance approach is superior to temperature index methods, but the roughness length parameter is again unstable in time and space. Even in a small (0·4 km2) basin this approach has to be coupled with an adequate flow routing model. Current research is comparing alternative models and data inputs in an intermediate-sized basin. (C) 1987, Royal Society of Edinburgh. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, R.I.; Werritty, A.2009Bar Development and Channel Changes in the Gravelly River Feshie, ScotlandModern and Ancient Fluvial SystemsWiley Blackwell181-1939781444303773 (ISBN); 0632009977 (ISBN); 9780632009978 (ISBN)10.1002/9781444303773.ch14; reaches of the River Feshie in the Cairngorm Mountains have active low-sinuosity moderately divided patterns in which glacial outwash gravel is reworked by floods of up to 100 m3 sec-1on a gradient of 0.009. Alternate bars of diagonal or lateral form are characteristic; they may develop from lobate or elongate medial bars, and advance episodically during floods. A model involving diagonal-bar progradation and consequent bank erosion opposite accreting bar margins, interrupted by avulsion within the channel by chute incision or from the channel by ponded-pool overflow, is used to explain surveyed changes in one sub-reach since its initiation by avulsion in 1976. The main oblique bar front advanced 160 m by 1981 and its exposed portion changed from medial to lateral to medial through avulsion around or across the bar. The channel widened by 136% from 1977 to 1981 with bank erosion locally exceeding 10 m yr-1. Bar progradation into sloughs, and sheet transport over vegetated floodplain, led to coarsening-upward sedimentation with a falling-stage veneer of finer deposits on bar tops and lee margins. The behaviour of this wandering gravel river resembles laboratory pseudo-meandering and may represent a balance between divergent meandering and braiding tendencies. (C) 1983 The International Association of Sedimentologists.
Ferrier, R.C.; Jenkins, A.; Elston, D.A.1995The composition of rime ice as an indicator of the quality of winter depositionEnvironmental Pollution87259-2660269-749110.1016/0269-7491(94)p4157-j://WOS:A1995PZ45400001; ice deposition and snow chemistry has been determined over a 4-year period on the summit of Cairngorm Mountain, NE Scotland. The direction of ice deposition reflected the dominant air mass movement over the summit. Sea salt concentrations in the rime ice were approximately 2.5 times greater than in snow deposited over the same period. Excess sulphate concentrations were double, and those of nitrate nearly four times higher. The direction of deposition influenced concentrations of excess sulphate and nitrogen species (nitrate and ammonium) in rime ice. The same directional effect was found in the snow chemistry indicating increased entrapment of pollutants, or a more polluted air mass, when it prevailed from a Southerly or Easterly direction. The potential surface reactions involving gaseous species of S and N may increase the ionic loading to the rime and reflect natural ionic enrichment of the rimed snowpack surface. Because of such phenomena, rime ice is proposed as a further indicator of winter air quality revealing important information on ionic interactions and total deposition flux measurement, especially at high altitudes.
Ferrier, R.C., et al.1990Assessment of wet deposition mechanisms in an upland Scottish catchmentJournal of Hydrology113285-29600221694 (ISSN)10.1016/0022-1694(90)90179-2; network of collectors were installed at various altitudes and degrees of exposure in the Allt a Mharcaidh catchment, northeast Scotland, in an attempt to obtain an accurate assessment of wet deposition loading. Results indicate that the quantity and quality of bulk deposition is constant over the whole catchment. "Enhancement deposition" as measured by a filter-gauge interception collector indicated that there was greatest deposition at altitude. The concentrations of all elements, except for hydrogen, were greater than that of catchment bulk deposition at the higher altitudes; at lower altitude enrichment was only appreciable for sodium and chloride. Input/output chloride budgets were used to assess catchment evapotranspiration rates and the relative proportions of enhancement deposition within different altitudinal ranges. The calculation gives a catchment evapotranspiration of 18.5% and a chloride enhancement deposition 2.5 times greater at higher altitudes than at lower altitudes. Rainfall chemistry in this high-level Cairngorm catchment appears independent of the positioning of the rainfall collectors. Different altitudes within the catchment receive an additional loading due to enhancement deposition, dependent upon the frequency of cloud/mist cover. This additional loading must be included in the assessment of total catchment loadings and in the calculation of evapotranspiration. (C) 1990.
Ferrier, R.C., et al.1990Hydrological and hydrochemical fluxes through vegetation and soil in the Allt a' Mharcaidh, western Cairngorms, Scotland: Their effect on streamwater qualityJournal of Hydrology116251-26600221694 (ISSN)10.1016/0022-1694(90)90126-i; detailed investigation of the hydrochemical alteration of input water by vegetation and soils was undertaken in an upland catchment in the Cairngorm Mountain region of Scotland. The composition of catchment outflow water reflects the hydrological routing of water through different soil horizons and the importance of long residence time water. There is uptake of nitrogen and neutralization of incoming anthropogenic acidity by the vegetation, and sulphate adsorption in the mineral soils. Streamwater quality is dominated by the contribution of long residence time water, especially during base flow. Sulphate retention and cation release are the major neutralization mechanisms buffering outflow chemistry at this site. (C) 1990.
Ficken, K.J.; Barber, K.E.; Eglinton, G.1998Lipid biomarker, delta C-13 and plant macrofossil stratigraphy of a Scottish montane peat bog over the last two millenniaOrganic Geochemistry28217-2370146-638010.1016/s0146-6380(97)00126-5://WOS:000073351500005; horizons of a pear core covering the last 2000 years from Moine Mhor, a blanket bog in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland have been examined for the carbon number distributions of the long-chain hydrocarbon, alcohol and acid components using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC--MS). Compound specific delta(13)C values for individual n-alkanes were obtained, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC--irms). The lipid biomarker distributions and the delta(13)C values have been compared with those of eleven species of living plant dominant at the contemporary surface of the bog. The observed lipid stratigraphy shows only partial agreement with that calculated using macrofossil abundance data and the lipid distributions for the living taxa, a result which reflects the inherent uncertainties in both the lipid biomarker and the macrofossil approaches to palaeoenvironmental stratigraphy. The carbon isotope values for the individual n-alkanes of the plants (-27.6 to -36.6%) and of the peat layers (-29 to -31.7%) are as expected for the C-3 photosynthetic pathway. However, the n-alkanes from the surface samples were more depleted (by similar to 2%) in C-13 than those from the rest of the core, a negative shift which may, in part, reflect the shift (-1.2%) in delta(13)C estimated for CO2 in a pre-industrialised to an industrialised atmosphere. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, F.N.; King, M.D.; Lee-Taylor, J.2005Extinction of UV-visible radiation in wet midlatitude (maritime) snow: Implications for increased NOx emissionJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres110112169-897X10.1029/2005jd005963://WOS:000233160600002; field and modeling study of the optical properties of wet midlatitude (maritime) mountainous snowpack is presented. The snowpacks were found to have greater UV penetration depths than polar (tundra) snowpacks and consequently may release more NO2 gas to the atmosphere during the photolytic destruction of nitrate anions in the snowpack for a given spherical irradiance. Fluxes of NO2 to the troposphere as a result of NO3- photolysis were calculated for different measured e-folding depths using tropospheric ultraviolet-visible (TUV)-modeled actinic flux data assuming all the NO2 can leave the snowpack and the photolysis of nitrate is the rate-limiting step. These calculated fluxes ranged from 3.3 to 7.6 kg km(-2) yr(-1) (assuming 150 days of snow cover a year), significantly more than polar snowpacks by a factor of 4-10. The fieldwork measured liquid equivalent e-folding depths of 3.74-14.66 cm (e-folding depths of 7.25-32.4 cm(-1)) at four sites in the Cairngorm mountain range, Scotland (57 degrees 07 ' N, 3 degrees 40 ' W), during the winter of 2003. The wavelength range studied was 300-450 nm. The snowpacks consisted predominantly of windblown rounded grains ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 mm in diameter. The liquid water content of the snowpacks varied between the sites, which were visited up to three times to observe temporal changes in the physical composition and optical properties of the snowpack. The snowpack was modeled using the TUV radiative-transfer model, calculating scattering cross sections (sigma(scatt)) between 1 and 5 m(2) kg(-1). The absorption coefficient due to impurities (sigma(+)(abs)) was also modeled and was found to be approximately 1.0 cm 2 kg(-1). Three optically different snowpack categories are suggested: cold, dry polar (tundra) snowpacks, sigma(scatt) = 20-30 m(2) kg(-1); warmer polar coastal (maritime) snowpacks, sigma(scatt) = 6-13 m(2) kg(-1); and melting midlatitude mountainous (maritime) snow, sigma(scatt) = 1-5 m(2) kg(-1). Thus for midlatitude wet snow, 85% of photochemistry is likely to occur in the top 15-60 cm.
Flower, R.J.; Jones, V.J.1989Taxonomic descriptions and occurrences of new achnanthes taxa in acid lakes in the u.kDiatom Research4227-2390269249X (ISSN)10.1080/0269249x.1989.9705072; new species of Achnanthes, A. scotica, is described from Lochnagar in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Three new varieties, A. altaica v. minor, A. austriaca v. minor, and A. austriaca v. alpina and one new form, A. marginulata f. major, are also described from sites in the Cairngorms and elsewhere. Modern and fossil distributions of these taxa in acid upland oligotrophic UK lakes are evaluated. (C) 1989 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Forrest, G.I.1980Genotypic variation among native scots pine populations in Scotland based on monoterpene analysisForestry53101-1280015752X (ISSN)10.1093/forestry/53.2.101;; monoterpene composition of the shoot cortical resin of 6705 native Scots pine trees from 41 sites in Scotland was determined by gas chromatography. Each tree was allocated to one of a number of biochemical genotypes. Variation between sites allowed the natural range to be divided into several areas of biochemical similarity, the most distinct being a north-western group of sites with Shieldaig as its most distinctive site. Other areas included a northern group, a south-western group centred on the Great Glen, a central north-south region, central Speyside, and outer Speyside/eastern Deeside. Variation was detected at several levels within some woodlands. Relationships between sites and between regions, as shown by mathematical analyses of the biochemical parameters, can be used as a guide in planning replanting programmes. (C) 1980 Oxford University Press.
Forrester, B.J.; Stott, T.A.2016Faecal Coliform Levels in Mountain Streams of Winter Recreation Zones in the Cairngorms National Park, ScotlandScottish Geographical Journal132246-2561470-254110.1080/14702541.2016.1156731://WOS:000385670800005; study aims to establish the spatial distribution of stream water faecal coliform (FC) concentrations in specific winter recreation areas in the Northern Corries of the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. A total of 207 water samples were collected from 10 sites during two winter seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) and analysed by Colilert((R)) 24 for the presence of FC, specifically Escherichia coli(E. coli). E. coli was not detected at Sites 1-7, above 635m. Sites 8, 9 and 10 (below 635m) had positive detection rates for E. coli, these being 32%, 35% and 31%, respectively. Results provide important data on the level of faecal bacteria in selected Scottish mountain streams, whilst also providing comparative benchmark data for similar studies proposed in other UK upland recreational hotspots.
French, D.D.; Miller, G.R.; Cummins, R.P.1997Recent development of high-altitude Pinus sylvestris scrub in the Northern Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandBiological Conservation79133-1440006-320710.1016/s0006-3207(96)00104-8://WOS:A1997WE00200003; pine Pinus sylvestris has been colonizing the Northern Corries area of the Cairngorm mountains, following a reduction in grazing and browsing, and a natural subalpine scrub zone appears to be developing. The area was surveyed to assess the density and rates of tree colonization, and identify the factors affecting the process. The pattern of colonization was uneven. Although relationships between pine establishment and environmental variables were complex, it was possible to identify the main factors affecting pine colonization. They were: distance from the forest (the main seed source), altitude, vegetation (type and height), drainage and soil organic horizon depth. Combining the effects of all these factors, pine establishment was greatest close to the forest, at altitudes around 600-700 m, in Calluna vulgaris moor or lichen-rich dwarf Calluna heath under 20 cm tall, on well-drained mineral soils with at most a shallow organic horizon. Establishment at low altitudes tended to be restricted by deep, wet peat and tall vegetation, and at high altitudes mainly by climate. The age structure of the population indicated a sudden increase in colonization around 1960, possibly related to reduced deer browsing, but colonization decreased after about 1970. Some possible reasons for this pattern ave given. Comparisons with other tree-line populations suggest that, provided grazing/browsing pressure remains low, the area may develop a natural tree-line similar to the only other extensive natural tree-line presently known in Scotland, at Creag Fhiaclach, also in the Cairngorms. Some suggestions are made of suitable management to accelerate this process. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Limited
Fritz, S.; Carver, S.; See, L.2000New GIS approaches to wild land mapping in EuropeMcCool, S.F., et al.Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference, Vol 2: Wilderness within the Context of Larger SystemsFt CollinsUs Dept Agr, Forest Serv Rocky Mt Forest & Range Exptl Stn2120-127 paper outlines modifications and new approaches to wild land mapping developed specifically for the United Kingdom and European areas. In particular, national level reconnaissance and local level mapping of wild land in the UK and Scotland are presented. A national level study for the UK is undertaken, and a local study focuses on the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. 'Remoteness from mechanized access' is mapped on a local scale, using Naismith's Rule in combination with Djikstra's algorithm. 'Apparent naturalness' is mapped by using an Internet questionnaire in order to collect perceptual information on how different human-made features affect an individual's overall perception of wild land. A fuzzy logic modelling framework is proposed to translate the findings from the questionnaire into the spatial domain.
Fryday, A.M.2001Phytosociology of terricolous lichen vegetation in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandLichenologist33331-3510024-282910.1006/lich.2001.0322://WOS:000170028900008; results of an investigation into the lichen vegetation associated with vascular plant communities in the Scottish Highlands are presented. Most lichen species rarely occur in homogeneous strands of vascular plans vegetation, either occurring around the edges of recognized National Vegetation Classification (NVC) communities or in small-scale mosaics with them. However, some lichen species have a high fidelity to the more open NVC communities. The problems associated with applying NVC survey techniques to lichen assemblages are described and discussed. (C) 2001 The British Lichen Society.
Gauld, J.H.1982Native pinewood soils in the northern section of Abernethy ForestScottish Geographical Magazine9848-5600369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369228208736514;; morphological and environmental characteristics of the dominant soils, iron and humus iron podzols, found within the northern section of Abernethy Forest, are discussed along with their possible variation in profile morphology and their analytical properties. Beneath a native pinewood, the humus iron podzol subgroup is widespread, but other podzol subgroups, peat and peaty gleys are also to be found. Considerable significance is attached to the studies in relation to future ecological studies and to the management and conservation of native pinewood habitats, both in Speyside and throughout Scotland. (C) 1982 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Getz, D.1981Tourism and rural settlement policyScottish Geographical Magazine97158-16800369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369228108736501;; has brought renewed vitality to the Badenoch and Strathspey District of the Scottish Highlands, but the benefits have not been spread uniformly. Research showed that an initial concentration of large-scale development at Aviemore had created major changes there and in the other large villages, while smaller settlements and rural sub-areas had continued to decline. Concentration at Aviemore must be checked and demand for tourist accommodation dispersed if a significant spread of new all-year jobs is to be achieved. These findings have serious implications for settlement policies pursued by local authorities and for the agencies promoting tourism. (C) 1981 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Gheorghiu, D.M., et al.2012Lateglacial surface exposure dating in the Monadhliath Mountains, Central Highlands, ScotlandQuaternary Science Reviews41132-1460277-379110.1016/j.quascirev.2012.02.022://WOS:000304568400011; constrain the deglaciation history of the Monadhliath Mountains since the Last Glacial Maximum using glacial geomorphology and surface exposure dating. Collectively these data clarify the glacial history of the Monadhliath Mountains at the close of the Devensian cold period. Be-10 exposure ages indicate deglaciation of the Last Devensian ice sheet at 15.1 +/- 1.4 ka at ca 640 m OD. The exposure ages are consistent with basal radiocarbon ages from nearby Loch Etteridge, 5 km to the south-east (15.3 +/- 0.2 kcal BP1). Boulders from moraines in three Monadhliath corries yielded exposure ages between 11.8 ka and 9.8 ka (470-600 m OD), suggesting that a Lateglacial advance occurred during the Younger Dryas stadial. The limited extent of these Younger Dryas glaciers in the Monadhliath Mountains results from the combined effect of a drier climate experienced in the eastern part of the Central Highlands ice cap and topographical factors. Our reconstruction largely supports the deglaciation model of Golledge et al. (2008) and confirms that a SW to NE precipitation gradient dominated Scotland during the Younger Dryas. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibbins, C.N., et al.2001Invertebrate communities and hydrological variation in Cairngorm mountain streamsHydrobiologia462205-2190018-815810.1023/a:1013102704693://WOS:000173380900017;, discharge and 16 chemical variables were monitored over a 14-year period in four small streams (catchment area <15 km(2)) in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to assess relationships between invertebrates and environmental conditions on the day of sampling, average conditions over the preceding 1, 2 and 3-month periods and indices of hydrological and hydrochemical variation over preceding monthly intervals. CCA detected subtle inter-catchment differences in invertebrate community structure, with catchments separated along axes representing streamwater calcium, alkalinity and total organic carbon concentrations. Invertebrate communities varied seasonally, with spring, summer and autumn samples separated along CCA axes representing temperature, orthosilicate and discharge. Hydrochemically, spring was the most variable season, characterised by increased frequency of both high and low flow events and acid, snowmelt episodes. In two of the streams, invertebrate community structure varied more in spring than in other seasons. CCA ordinations using indices of hydrological and hydrochemical variation over preceding time periods were more successful (increased eigenvalues) at explaining temporal variation in invertebrate community structure than those using conditions on the day of sampling or average conditions over preceding time periods. For one of the catchments, 40% of the seasonal and between-year variation over the 14-year period could be explained by the frequency of high and low flow events, maximum and minimum water temperatures and acid episodes in the two months prior to the invertebrate samples being collected. The single most important flow parameter (longest CCA arrow) was the frequency of high flow events greater than three times the median discharge. No significant trends in invertebrate community composition were found in any of the streams over the 14-year period so, despite the apparent importance of hydrological and hydrochemical variation, communities appeared stable over the long-term.
Gilbert, O.L.; Fox, B.W.1985Lichens of high ground in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandLichenologist1751-660024-282910.1017/s002428298500007x://WOS:A1985ABM2500005;
Gillespie, M.; Thomas, C.2005Understanding the CairngormsPlanet Earth18-1914792605 (ISSN) Cairngorm Mountains and the surrounding area are the most heavily used upland regions of the United Kingdom, supporting significant part of the central Grampian Highlands economy. The landscape, climate, and wildlife combine to produce a mountain environment unique in UK, and also support a sub-arctic fauna and flora. Cairngorm contains a wealth of information about past environmental change and how the landscape evolved through arid, tropical, and arctic periods to today's temperate climate. They are recognized internationally for their Earth heritage value and are included on UK's 'Tentative List' of World Heritage sites, submitted to UNESCO. The Cairngorm massif forms a broad dome about 30km by 20km, rising from 300-500m above sea level at its margins, to a deeply dissected central plateau at around 1000m. The massif is underlain almost entirely by the Caringorm Granite, which about 425 million years ago, was injected as molten magma into overlaying metamorphosed and deformed sedimentary rocks. The overall size, shape, and elevation of the massif are controlled almost entirely by the size and shape of the granite body.
Glasser, N.F.1997The origin and significance of sheet joints in the Cairngorm graniteScottish Journal of Geology33125-1310036-927610.1144/sjg33020125://WOS:A1997YJ53100003The development of sheet joints parallel to topographic surfaces is a characteristic of granitic rocks. These sheet joints are well developed in the granite of the Cairngorm Mountains. Both preglacial and glacial origins have been proposed for these joints and their genesis is an area of considerable uncertainty. In this study, a quantitative analysis of joint characteristics of the granite sheets in the Cairngorm Mountains was undertaken. Sheet joints can be divided into two distinct categories: a first set of near-horizontal sheets parallel to the upper plateau surfaces of the area and a second, steeply dipping set developed parallel to the walls of glacial troughs. Both the near-horizontal and the steeply dipping sheet joints contain the same set of primary structural joints. In all localities the sheet joints :lie parallel to the surrounding topography, suggesting that they represent unloading surfaces. The near-horizontal sheets are interpreted as the result of gradual surface lowering through the Quaternary, whilst the steeply dipping sheets exposed in trough walls may be the result of more rapid erosion during Quaternary glaciations.
Glasser, N.F.2002The large roches moutonnées of upper deesideScottish Geographical Journal118129-13814702541 (ISSN)10.1080/00369220218737141;;
Glover, B.W.; Winchester, J.A.1989The Grampian Group: a major Late Proterozoic clastic sequence in the Central Highlands of ScotlandJournal - Geological Society (London)14685-9610.1144/gsjgs.146.1.0085 stratigraphic framework is proposed for the Late Proterozoic Grampian Group of the Scottish Highlands. The Grampian Group is divided into three subgroups, each defined by distinctive lithofacies associations reflecting different environments of deposition. The thin Ord Ban Subgroup, which is locally developed at the base of the Grampian Group on Speyside and Strath Dearn, consists of shallow marine shelf sediments in association with concordant amphibolite sheets. Elsewhere the Corrieyairack Subgroup, which is thickest around Loch Laggan, forms the lower portion of the Grampian Group and comprises a thick turbiditic clastic sequence laid down in deeper water during rapid basin subsidence. The Glen Spean Subgroup comprises the upper part of the Grampian Group and is thickest in the Atholl District. It is composed of shallow water tidal and deltaic deposits, marking a shallowing of the Grampian Group basin. Lateral facies changes and diachronous contacts are indicative of differential subsidence and the Grampian Group basin apparently developed and filled before the onset of regional subsidence which heralded deposition of the overlying Dalradian sediments. The possibility that the Grampian Group was unconformable on the structurally underlying Central Highland Division and Glenshirra Succession is currently unresolved. -Authors
Golledge, N.2002Glaci-tectonic deformation of proglacial lake sediments in the Cairngorm MountainsScottish Journal of Geology38127-1360036-927610.1144/sjg38020127://WOS:000180760500006Polyphase deformation of glaciolacustrine sediments in the Cairngorm Mountains suggests ice-margin oscillations within a plateau ice-field outlet lobe following the Late Devensian Glacial Maximum, c. 18 ka C-14 BP. Lithostratigraphical analysis of exposures of glacial lake sediments in Gleann Einich reveals that an initial phase of proglacial thrusting was followed by a phase of subglacial deformation resulting from glacier-overriding from the south. Subsequent ice retreat led to the deposition of more extensive lake and delta sediments. This new model of active retreat supports recent theories of a Late Devensian deglaciation punctuated by ice-margin readvances.
Goodfellow, B.W., et al.2014Controls of tor formation, Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface119225-2462169-900310.1002/2013jf002862://WOS:000333032300009; occur in many granitic landscapes and provide opportunities to better understand differential weathering. We assess tor formation in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, by examining correlation of tor location and size with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer a control on these relationships and explore its potential broader significance for differential weathering and tor formation. We also assess the relationship between the formation of subhorizontal joints in many tors and local topographic shape by evaluating principle surface curvatures from a digital elevation model of the Cairngorms. We then explore the implications of these joints for tor formation. We conclude that the Cairngorm tors have formed in kernels of relatively coarse grained granite. Tor volumes increase with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer that the steeply dipping joints largely formed during pluton cooling and are more widely spaced in tor kernels because of slower cooling rates. Preferential tor formation in coarser granite with a wider joint spacing that is more easily grusified indicates that joint spacing is a dominant control on differential weathering. Sheet jointing is well developed in tors located on relatively high convex surfaces. This jointing formed after the gross topography of the Cairngorms was established and before tor emergence. The presence of closely spaced (tens of centimeters), subhorizontal sheeting joints in tors indicates that these tors, and similarly sheeted tors elsewhere, formed either after subaerial exposure of bedrock or have progressively emerged from a regolith only a few meters thick. Key Points Tors form in kernels of coarse-grained granite among finer-grained granite Wide joint spacing in tors attributable to a slow cooling rate of the granite Sheet jointing discounts tor formation within a thick regolith
Goodier, R.1990Conflict in the Cairngorms - contrasting attitudes towards the use of the mountainsSvobodova, H.Cultural Aspects of LandscapeWageningenPudoc139-14690-220-1018-X://WOS:A1990BR91T00012
Goodman, S.1994The Portsoy–Duchray Hill Lineament: A review of the evidenceGeological Magazine131407-41500167568 (ISSN)10.1017/s0016756800011158; Portsoy–Duchray Hill Lineament has been widely quoted in the literature as a major zone of discontinuities, running from Portsoy on the Banff coast to the Duchray Hill area in Perthshire. A review of the evidence indicates that there is no single structural entity running from Portsoy to Duchray Hill; the term ‘Portsoy-Duchray Hill lineament’ should be avoided. There are, however, significant along- and across-strike variations in geological history across a zone which extends from Portsoy to the Cabrach (the ‘Portsoy Line’). Certain elements can be identified also in areas further south, e.g. the Coyles of Muick shear zone and Glen Doll fault. The Portsoy Line was initiated as a zone of syn-depositional faulting, with resulting facies variations similar to those seen across the Glen Doll fault. The Portsoy Line was reactivated as a ductile shear zone during Caledonian orogenesis, while the Glen Doll fault is a later, more brittle, structure. The shear zone from Portsoy to the Cabrach forms the western branch of a system of shears which acted to focus syn-orogenic basic magmatism, and differential movement during post- metamorphic uplift. The Coyles of Muick shear zone is the most southerly example of the system of shears, and there is probably a transfer zone along Deeside between it and the Portsoy-Cabrach shear zone, now obscured in part by the Ballater Granite. The focused shear zones serve to delineate the Buchan area, with its low pressure metamorphism and distinctive structural style, from areas to the south and west where the structural level was deeper, and deformation more pervasive. (C) 1994, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.
Gordon, J.; Kirkbride, V.2003The Cairngorm mountainsGeography Review1738-4109507035 (ISSN) Cairngorm mountains in Scotland were included in the UK Tentative List of World Heritage Sites published by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport in 1999. They were proposed for this status because of their exceptional physical features. This article outlines the significance of these features and looks at the habitats and landscape they create. To qualify as a World Heritage Site, an area must pass an independent assessment of its quality and there must be a management framework in place to ensure the integrity of the interest. Most of the highest summits in Scotland are in the Cairngorms. These mountains, with their distinctive plateau surfaces and glacially sculptured features, are surrounded by open moorland and glens. The climate reflects a unique combination of oceanic and continental influences, and is characterised by wet and windy conditions, rather than extreme cold. The diversity of landforms in the Cairngorms provides exceptional insights into long-term processes of mountain landscape evolution and environmental change in a maritime, mid-latitude setting in the northern hemisphere. This geomorphological development spans the latter part of the Tertiary period with its warm humid climate, through the ice age glaciations of the last 2.5 million years, to the present day.
Gordon, J.E.2001The corries of the Cairngorm MountainsScottish Geographical Journal11749-621470-254110.1080/00369220118737110://WOS:000172318500004;
Gordon, J.E.2010Scottish Landform Example-41: The Geological Foundations and Landscape Evolution of ScotlandScottish Geographical Journal12641-621470-254110.1080/14702540903499132://WOS:000275235400004;;
Gordon, J.E., et al.2001Geo-ecology and the conservation management of sensitive upland landscapes in ScotlandCatena42323-3320341-816210.1016/s0341-8162(00)00144-2://WOS:000166235000013; landscape sensitivity in the uplands is complex, given the spatial and temporal changes in the nature and rate of landforming processes, and the variability of geomorphological and ecological responses. The concept of geomorphological sensitivity provides a useful starting point for identifying sensitive upland landscapes. This paper develops a gee-ecological perspective which unites both habitat and ecological dependencies in fragile upland environments, and provides a framework for developing conservation management. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Gordon, J.E., et al.2002Geo-ecology and management of sensitive montane landscapesGeografiska Annaler Series a-Physical Geography84A193-2030435-367610.1111/j.0435-3676.2002.00174.x://WOS:000180199000008; (alpine) areas are generally of high value for nature conservation. Such environments and the habitats they support are dynamic and often fragile. They are vulnerable to disturbance from a range of human activities and are responsive to climate changes over short and long timescales. Biodiversity and conservation values are closely linked to geological history, geomorphological processes and soils, and it is crucial that management systems are based on understanding these links. There are many similarities between the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland), the Giant Mountains (Czech Republic) and Abisko Mountains (Sweden) in terms of geology, geomorphology, ecology, links with biodiversity and high conservation importance. Comparable pressures and management issues involve, to varying degrees, a history of human use and impacts from deforestation, pasturing, grazing, recreation and atmospheric pollution. Landscape change therefore involves a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. Managing such change requires better understanding of the geo-ecological processes involved and the factors that determine landscape sensitivity. This is illustrated through a simple framework and examples from the three areas. Comparison of landscape sensitivity between similar montane areas, but in different geographic locations and climatic environments, should allow more informed management planning and a precautionary approach in advance of further changes in human activity and from predicted global warming scenarios.
Gordon, J.E., et al.1999Change in mountain environments: geomorphological sensitivity to natural processes and human activity in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandPrice, M.Global Change in the MountainsLancasterParthenon Publishing Group Ltd51-531-85070-062-1
Gordon, J.E., et al.1998Environmental sensitivity and conservation management in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandAmbio27335-3440044-7447://WOS:000075194500014The Cairngorm Mountains are outstanding for nature conservation and recognized to be of national and international importance for geomorphology, woodlands and montane (alpine) environments. The climate is unique in the mix of oceanic and continental influences, and this is reflected in the arctic-like character of the high montane zone, notably in its arctic-alpine plant communities, species, geomorphological processes and soils. There is a range of near-natural and semi-natural habitats from valley mire and pine wood, through a transition of dwarf-shrub heaths and alpine grasslands to stony fell-field. These habitats occur within an assemblage of geomorphological features which are of exceptional value for research on the changes which have shaped the mountains of Britain. A range of human activities has produced locally significant impacts on the montane zone, as well as an overall reduction in environmental quality. Various statutory and voluntary measures are in place under a range of conservation designations to mitigate these impacts and to provide for environmental protection and enhancement. Impacts from global sources, notably atmospheric pollution and climate change, may potentially have greater and more widespread effects on the montane zone, but lie outside local management controls. Research is in place or planned to monitor future changes.
Gordon, S.1950Amid the high cairngormsNature166400280836 (ISSN)10.1038/166004a0;
Grace, J.1990Cuticular water loss unlikely to explain tree-line in ScotlandOecologiaSpringer-Verlag8464-6800298549 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00665596; to the hypotheses advanced by Wardle (1971) and Tranquillini (1979), failure of trees at their altitudinal limit is caused by poor development of the cuticle and a corresponding inability to conserve water in winter when the soil is frozen. This hypothesis was tested at a natural tree line of Scots pine in the Cairngorm mountains of Scotland. There was no sign of poor cuticular development, but needles from old krummholz at high altitudes and young isolated trees at higher altitude did lose water more rapidly than those at low altitude, over a range of water content during desiccation in the laboratory. The results are best attributed to stomatal dysfunction caused by mechanical damage to the leaf and also by direct damage to the cuticle, rather than to a thinner or less developed cuticle. Calculations show that a small increase in cuticular transpiration is quite unlikely to cause frost-drought. (C) 1990 Springer-Verlag.
Grace, J.; Allen, S.J.; Wilson, C.1989Climate and the meristem temperatures of plant communities near the tree-lineOecologiaSpringer-Verlag79198-20400298549 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00388479; of terminal meristems of forest, krummholz and dwarf shrub vegetation were measured at altitudes of 450, 600, 650 and 850 m in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Simultaneously, the air temperature above the vegetation was recorded, so that it was possible to calculate the difference between meristem and air temperature, sometimes called the excess temperature. This temperature increased linearly with the net radiation absorbed at each station, and the slope was dependent on wind speed and the height of the vegetation. In the extreme cases the slopes were practically zero for forest and 0.028° C W-1 m2 for dwarf shrubs. The latter implies a temperature excess of about 15° C in bright sunshine and low wind speeds. A model is developed to calculate the excess temperature from a knowledge of vegetational height and climatological variables. (C) 1989 Springer-Verlag.
Green, F.H.W.1968Persistent snowbeds in the western CairngormsWeather23206-20900431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1968.tb03057.x;
Green, F.H.W.1970Seasonal changes of snow cover on the CairngormsWeather25211-21400431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1970.tb03264.x;
Gregory, J.; Collins, D.N.; Morris, E.M.1986Modelling the effect of snowmelt on stream water quality ( Cairngorm Mountains)Morris, E.M.Modelling snowmelt-induced processes. Proc. Budapest symposium, 1986IAHS-AISH Publication 155311-324 the application of a lumped, conceptual hydrochemical model to a 3.5 km2 basin in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. The model has previously been used successfully to simulate changes in stream water quality produced by preferential elution of pollutants from snow at the onset of melt in a small (0.37 km2) experimental basin in the same region. Results from the larger basin indicate, however, that the effects of snowmelt cannot be correctly simulated unless a distributed model for snow processes is used. -Authors
Grieve, I.C.2000Effects of human disturbance and cryoturbation on soil iron and organic matter distributions and on carbon storage at high elevations in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandGeoderma951-140016-706110.1016/s0016-7061(99)00060-9://WOS:000085380400001; profiles were sampled at 43 sites on granitic parent material at altitudes ranging from 970 to 1300 m in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Many soils under undisturbed vegetation showed evidence of iron and organic matter translocation with distinctive Bh or Bs horizons. Approximately 50% of the sites sampled had no or partial vegetation cover, due either to human activity (trampling) or active geomorphic processes such as cryoturbation on patterned ground. Exposed cols and summit ridges were most heavily affected by trampling with extensive areas of path development and some erosion. Trampling was principally associated with loss of the upper soil horizons and cryoturbation processes with disturbance of horizon development. Median total organic matter at the vegetated sites ranged from 4.8 to 22.0 kg m(-2) with a median of 9.5 kg m-2. There was significantly less total organic matter at the unvegetated sites with median of 4.6 kg m(-2) and range from 1.5 to 11.9 kg m(-2). There was little difference in total organic matter between sites where vegetation disturbance was due to human trampling or to cryoturbation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Habron, D.1998Visual perception of wild land in ScotlandLandscape and Urban Planning4245-560169-204610.1016/s0169-2046(98)00069-3://WOS:000075433000004; term 'wild land' is often used to describe the Highlands of Scotland, but means different things to different people. In biophysical terms there is very little, if any, 'wild land' left in Scotland as most of the landscape has been altered by human hand or grazing; what is left is now under pressure from recreational activities and the continued development of forestry. However, 'wild land' still exists for some people and yet there is no widely accepted definition of the concept within the context of Scotland. Based on the peoples' visual perception of the environment this research attempts to define the term 'wild land' for two areas of Scotland, the Cairngorms and Wester Ross. A photographic questionnaire is used to differentiate between the concepts of 'wildness', 'perceived naturalness' and 'beauty', In addition, the identification of which landscape attributes are requisite for a 'wild land' experience and an analysis of how these differ between the sample groups is presented. The views of rural inhabitants, walkers, rural outdoor workers and environmental organisations are taken into account. The results from initial analysis of the questionnaire data shows that there is a large variation in perceived wildness across a range of Scottish landscape types. In addition there is evidence to show that for each landscape type, wildness is perceived in a similar way by all four sample groups, unlike perceived naturalness which displays much greater variation between the groups. The largest differences in perceived naturalness are apparent between the views of rural inhabitants and recreational users. Discussion of possible future spatial analysis of the results using a geographic information system to provide map output showing the variation in wild land quality for the different sample groups is presented. The implication for conservation management is to consider the value of wild land as a resource in its own right, in addition to the more tangible ecological and geological resources that are currently valued. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.
Haddock, J., et al.2007A method for evaluating alternative landscape management scenarios in relation to the biodiversity conservation of habitatsEcological Economics61277-28309218009 (ISSN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.02.019; perennial issue for land use policy is the evaluation of landscape biodiversity and the associated cost effectiveness of any biodiversity conservation policy actions. Based on the CUA methodology as applied to species conservation, this paper develops a methodology for evaluating the impact on habitats of alternative landscape management scenarios. The method incorporates three dimensions of habitats, quantity change, quality change and relative scarcity, and is illustrated in relation to the alternative landscape management scenarios for the Scottish Highlands (Cairngorms) study area of the BioScene project. The results demonstrate the value of the method for evaluating biodiversity conservation policies through their impact on habitats. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hall, A.M., et al.2016Late readvance and rapid final deglaciation of the last ice sheet in the Grampian Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Quaternary Science31869-8780267-817910.1002/jqs.2911://WOS:000390345600004; the end of the last glaciation, ice sourced from the western Grampian Mountains of Scotland flowed down Strath Spey to encroach on the northern flanks of the Cairngorm Mountains. The maximum of this late advance and its subsequent retreat is recorded by moraines, ice-marginal meltwater channels, and kame terraces that can be traced for 60 km along Strath Spey. New cosmogenic Be-10 exposure ages from moraines indicate deglaciation at 15.1 +/- 1.1 ka. This timing matches closely the recalibrated mean ages of 14.7 +/- 0.7 and 15.2 +/- 0.7 ka for the Wester Ross Readvance in the North-West Highlands. A synchronous readvance of the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) towards the end of Greenland Stadial 2a (GS-2a) (16.9-14.7 ka) is indicated. Thereafter active ice retreat from the flanks of Strath Spey was rapid, occurring within the similar to 1 ka uncertainty of the cosmogenic exposure ages. We suggest the advance followed the collapse of the marine parts of the BIIS at similar to 16 ka due to conditions of increased precipitation occurring at a time of low temperatures. The rapidity of deglaciation may reflect enhanced Fohn effects caused by the ice dome in the western Grampians. Copyright (C) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hall, A.M.; Gillespie, M.R.2017Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, ScotlandInternational Journal of Earth Sciences1062203-22191437-325410.1007/s00531-016-1423-z://WOS:000407925800020; are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and > 700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by < 500 m. Hence, the valley patterns in and around the Cairngorms have persisted through > 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.
Hall, A.M., et al.2013Scottish Landform Examples: The Cairngorms - A Pre-glacial Upland Granite LandscapeScottish Geographical Journal1292-141470-254110.1080/14702541.2012.728243://WOS:000317058900002;
Hall, A.M.; Glasser, N.F.2003Reconstructing the basal thermal regime of an ice stream in a landscape of selective linear erosion: Glen Avon, Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandBoreas32191-2070300-948310.1080/03009480310001100://WOS:000182465700013; Cairngorm Mountain area of Scotland is a classic example of a landscape of selective linear glacial erosion, with sharp contrasts in the intensity of glacial erosion between the deeply incised troughs and valleys and the undulating high plateau. This article examines the Quaternary development of Glen Avon, a 200 m deep glacial trough set within the high plateau of the mountains. Evidence concerning the aggregate basal thermal regimes of the topographically controlled ice streams that formerly developed in this area is reconstructed from the geomorphological record, including bedforms indicative of wet-based, sliding ice and of dry-based ice frozen to its bed. This mapping indicates that basal sliding was not confined exclusively to the troughs but extended towards valley heads and on to parts of the plateau adjacent to troughs. The extent of basal sliding appears to have been greatest beneath pre-Late Devensian ice sheets. Basal ice temperatures are modelled under steady-state conditions for the last ice sheet at c. 18 ka BP. Basal thermal regimes are predicted using a reconstruction of the preglacial relief and for the current topography of the area. Convergent flow of ice through the preglacial valley system appears to have been sufficient to induce basal melting and therefore to initiate valley deepening. This effect is enhanced when the model is run across the present topography. Comparison of results of the geomorphological mapping and the modelling reveals significant differences between the actual and predicted extent of basal sliding outside the main ice stream. The overall conclusion is that many ice streams in mountainous terrain are inherited from the locations of preglacial valleys, which serve to accelerate ice flow and promote frictional heating beneath ice sheets.
Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.M.2006Glacial modification of granite tors in the Cairngorms, ScotlandJournal of Quaternary Science21811-8300267-817910.1002/jqs.1003://WOS:000242681800002; range of evidence indicates that many granite tors in the Cairngorms have been modified by the flow of glacier ice during the Pleistocene. Comparisons with SW England and the use of a space-time transformation across 38 tor groups in the Cairngorms allow a model to be developed for progressive glacial modification. Tors with deeply etched surfaces and no, or limited, block removal imply an absence of significant glacial modification. The removal of superstructure and blocks, locally forming boulder trains, and the progressive reduction of tors to stumps and basal slabs represent the more advanced stages of modification. Recognition of some slabs as tor stumps from which glacial erosion has removed all superstructure allows the original distribution of tors to be reconstructed for large areas of the Cairngorms. Unmodified tors require covers of non-erosive, cold-based ice during all of the cold stages of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. Deformation beneath cold-based glacier ice is capable of the removal of blocks but advanced glacial modification requires former wet-based glacier ice. The depth of glacial erosion at former tor sites remains limited largely to the partial or total elimination of the upstanding tor form. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages (Phillips et al., 2006) together with data from weathering pit depths (Hall and Phillips, 2006), from the surfaces of tors and large erratic blocks require that the glacial entrainment of blocks from tors occurred in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4-2, 6 and, probably, at least one earlier phase. The occurrence of glacially modified tors on or close to, the main summits of the Cairngorms requires full ice cover over the mountains during these Stages. Evidence from the Cairngorms indicates that tor morphology can be regarded as an important indicator of former ice cover in many formerly glaciated areas, particularly where other evidence of ice cover is sparse. Recognition of the glacial modification of tors is important for debates about the former existence of nunataks and refugia. Copyright (C) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.M.2006Weathering pits as indicators of the relative age of granite surfaces in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandGeografiska Annaler Series a-Physical Geography88A135-1500435-367610.1111/j.0435-3676.2006.00290.x://WOS:000237954400007; pits 1-140 cm deep occur on granite surfaces in the Cairngorms associated with a range of landforms, including tors, glacially exposed slabs, large erratics and blockfields. Pit depth is positively correlated with cosmogenic exposure age, and both measures show consistent relationships on individual rock landforms. Rates of pit deepening are non-linear and a best fit is provided by the sigmoidal function D = b1 + exp(b2+b3/t). The deepest pits occur on unmodified tor summits, where Be-10 exposure ages indicate that surfaces have been exposed to weathering for a minimum of 52-297 ka. Glacially exposed surfaces with pits 10-46 cm deep have given Be-10 exposure durations of 21-79 ka, indicating exposure by glacial erosion before the last glacial cycle. The combination of cosmogenic exposure ages with weathering pit depths greatly extends the area over which inferences can be made regarding the ages of granite surfaces in the Cairngorms. Well-developed weathering pits on glacially exposed surfaces in other granite areas are potential indicators of glacial erosion before the Last Glacial Maximum.
Hall, P.1970Deeside Planning StudyRegional Studies4493-4940034-3404://WOS:A1970I692600009;
Hancock, M.H.2008An exceptional Calluna vulgaris winter die-back event, Abernethy Forest, Scottish HighlandsPlant Ecology & Diversity189-1031755-087410.1080/17550870802260772://WOS:000262132400010; Calluna vulgaris is a woody shrub forming plant communities of economic and international conservation importance. Following winter 2002-2003, there was exceptional Calluna die-back in the central Scottish Highlands. Aim: To understand the effects and causes of this die-back event at Abernethy Forest Nature Reserve, Cairngorms National Park. Methods: Patterns of weather, foliage moisture and microclimate were interpreted in relation to patterns of Calluna vulgaris die-back. Vegetation development was investigated over 4 years, based on pre-existing monitoring plots. Results: February 2003 included a period of exceptionally low air humidity, during which unusually low Calluna shoot moisture readings were made, particularly in areas that subsequently had severe die-back. In monitored areas, Calluna cover declined by a third, with minimal recovery after three growing seasons. Die-back was more severe where Calluna was longer-stemmed and less abundant, and where topography was flatter or more north-facing. These topographical features, and die-back, were correlated with colder winter microclimates. A doubling in Vaccinium myrtillus cover in forest plots was strongly correlated with the pattern of Calluna die-back. Meteorological data showed an eight-fold increase in the variability of winter humidity minima since 1983-1984. Conclusions: Die-back probably followed severe 'winter desiccation', caused by extreme low humidity conditions, combined with low temperatures, lack of snow cover, and Calluna vulnerability due to age. It led to a major vegetation change in the direction of management aims at this site, but contrary to aims at many other Calluna-dominated sites. The importance of climatic variability as a potential driver of major vegetation change is emphasised.
Hanley, N.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Shaw, W.D.2002Rationing an open-access resource: mountaineering in ScotlandLand Use Policy19167-1760264-837710.1016/s0264-8377(02)00004-2://WOS:000176641300006; paper considers alternative means of rationing access to outdoor recreation areas, focussing on rock-climbing sites in Scotland. Such rationing is deemed increasingly important due to crowding and environmental externalities, yet cultural and practical considerations mean that a system of simple entry fees to mountain areas is unrealistic. We use a repeated nested multinomial logit model to predict the impacts on welfare and trips of two alternative rationing mechanisms currently being considered by resource managers: (i) the imposition of car-parking fees and (ii) measures to increase access time (the so-called "long walk-in" policy). The impacts of these policies employed at three different sites (Glencoe, the Cairngorms and Ben Nevis) is investigated: we find, for example, that a 2 h increase in walk-in time in the Cairngorms reduces predicted visits by 44%, with knock-on effects being felt at other. substitute sites. A pound5/day car-parking fee reduces predicted trips to the Cairngorms by 31%. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of such rationing mechanisms in future land use policy in the mountains. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hannah, D.M., et al.2004Heat exchanges and temperatures within a salmon spawning stream in the cairngorms, Scotland: Seasonal and sub-seasonal dynamicsRiver Research and Applications20635-6521535-145910.1002/rra.771://WOS:000225154300002; temperatures are often used to predict salmonid embryo development; but there are very few medium-term studies of the heat exchanges determining water column and bed temperatures. Furthermore, no research exists on the energy balance for sub-arctic Scottish rivers. This paper reports results of a hydrometeorological study of a Cairngorm stream (Girnock burn, northeast Scotland) over the salmon spawning-hatch season (late October 2001 to mid-April 2002) that aims: (1) to characterize seasonal and sub-seasonal stream energy budget and thermal dynamics; and (2) to explain these variations with respect to meteorological and hydrological factors. In terms of average energy flux contributions, sensible heat (38.7%), the bed heat flux (37.0%) and friction at the stream bed and banks (24.3%) are heat sources, while latent heat (73.1 %) and net radiation (26.9%) are heat sinks. All energy losses and 38.7% of heat gains occur at the air-water interface; and 61.3% of energy gains (including friction) take place at the water-channel bed interface. Typically, temperatures increase (+ 1.97degreesC) and show dampening of thermal response from the water column to depth in the stream bed. The most salient findings include: (1) the stream bed (atmosphere) is the dominant energy source (sink) for heating (cooling) channel water, which may be attributed to inferred heat advection by groundwater up-welling into the bed of this upland stream; (2) sensible heat is the primary atmospheric energy source due to limited net radiation; (3) friction at the stream bed and banks is an important heat source. Energy budget terms and temperatures exhibit (sub-)seasonal changes in response to meteorological and hydrological conditions; a schematic diagram is presented to summarize these results. This paper clearly illustrates the need for further medium- to long-term empirical stream energy balance research to characterize heat flux dynamics and, thus, understand and predict water temperature variations over time-scales of relevance to biological studies. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Hannah, D.M., et al.2008A comparison of forest and moorland stream microclimate, heat exchanges and thermal dynamicsHydrological Processes22919-9400885-608710.1002/hyp.7003://WOS:000254815100003; the importance of riparian forest in moderating stream temperature variability is recognized, most previous research focuses on conifer harvesting effects and summer maximum temperature with highly variable findings. This article compares stream temperature, microclimate and heat exchange dynamics between semi-natural forest and moorland (no trees) reaches in the Scottish Cairngorms over two calendar years to provide a longer-term perspective. Mean daily water column temperature is warmer for moorland than forest in late winter-early spring, but cooler in summer. Daily water column temperature range is greater for moorland than forest. Streambed temperature dynamics are markedly different between reaches, reflecting contrasting groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions. Mean, minimum and maximum daily air temperature is cooler, humidity is lower, and wind speed is Much higher for moorland than forest on average. Net radiation is the dominant heat sink in autumn-winter and major heat source in spring-summer for moorland and summer for forest. Net radiation is greater in summer and lower in winter for moorland than forest. Sensible heat is an energy source in autumn-winter and sink in spring-summer, with loss (gain) greater in Summer (winter) for moorland than forest. Latent heat is predominantly a sink for both reaches, with magnitude and variability higher for moorland than forest. Streambed heat flux is much smaller than fluxes at the air-water interface, with moorland and forest illustrating seasonal and between-reach differences attributable to different GW-SW interactions. Seasonal patterns in stream energy budget partitioning are illustrated schematically. To our knowledge, this is the first such study of mixed woodland, which generates notably different results to work on coniferous forest. This research provides a process basis to model stream thermal impact of changes in forest practice, and so inform decision making by land and water resource managers. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Harding, R.J.1979Radiation in the British uplandsJournal of Applied Ecology16161-17000218901 (ISSN)10.2307/2402735; analysis was made of recent observations of solar radiation receipt in upland areas and the longer term data of hours of bright sunshine. Estimates were made of the means and spatial variabilities of these quantities in upland regions of the U. K. It is concluded that: 1) There is a decrease in solar radiation receipt, with increasing altitude, of 2.5-3 MJ m-2 day-1 km-1. 2) The altitudinal gradient of sunshine duration is 1.3 hour day-1 km-1. This value is consistent with the observed gradient of solar radiation. 3) In cloudless conditions, solar radiation increases by approximately 15% per 1000 m; 4) Above 100 m, the land is frequently above the level of the cloud tops,at least in the summer, so that the solar radiation receipt is as much as 35% greater on the summit of Cairngorm. - from Author
Haria, A.H.; Price, D.J.2000Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandHydrology and Earth System Sciences4451-4611027-560610.5194/hess-4-451-2000://WOS:000167826900010;, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and intensities were less. Measured interception by the forest canopy (interception by the undergrowth was not measured) was very different from HYLUC simulated values. By changing interception parameters to chose optimised against measured canopy interception, HYLUC simulated changing soil moisture deficits better and gave more confidence in the resulting transpiration values. The results show cd that natural pine woodland interception may be similar to plantation stands although the physical structure of the natural and plantation forests are different. Though having fewer storage sites for interception in the canopy, the natural pine woodland had greater ventilation and so evaporation of intercepted rainfall was enhanced, especially during low intensity rainfall. To understand the hydrological changes that would result with changing land-use (an expansion of natural forests into the wet heath land), the modelled outputs of the wet heath and mature forest sites were compared. Evaporation, a combination of transpiration and interception, was 41%, greater for the forest site than for the wet heath moorland. This may have significant consequences for the rainfall-runoff relationship and consequently for the hydrological response of the catchment as the natural woodland cover increases.
Harriman, R., et al.1990Short-term ionic responses as indicators of hydrochemical processes in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment, western Cairngorms, ScotlandJournal of Hydrology116267-28500221694 (ISSN)10.1016/0022-1694(90)90127-j; attempt to identify chemical controls in a transitional catchment in the Cairngorm region of Scotland was made using data from two distinct sampling regimes. The first was based on twice-weekly dip samples with associated flow conditions and the second was based on 1-2h time-series sampling during hydrological events. Annual mean data from spot samples provided general information on alkalinity sources and acidification status, and flow/ion relationships suggeste a three-phase chemical response within the flow profile. Alkalinity and organics appeared to show the greatest response to flow and sulphate the smallest. Information collected from time series sampling showed significant differences in the chemical response on the rising limb of the hydrograph compared with that on the falling limb, particularly for pH and alkalinity. In the first, low-flow, response phase, the chemical changes are attributed to a simple dilution process with little or no influence from surface soil horizons. During the second and more complex intermediate flow phase, the chemical response is compatible with wetting and mixing processes in the soil horizons resulting in a more variable relationship between flow and pH/alkalinity. The delayed return of alkalinity, base cations and organics, during flow recession, to pre-event levels, indicates a reservoir of acid/organic-rich water which, until depleted, contributes a major fraction of the output water. In the third, high-flow phase, a state of chemical equilibrium appears with little or no change in ion concentrations for large changes in flow. This insensitivity reflects a relatively saturated system with established of major hydrological pathways which produce water of a similar chemistry. From an interpretive standpoint, the time-series sampling provides a more detailed picture of the chemical contributions of the different soil horizons; flow-related dip samples can be used to identify the flow regimes within which these processes occur. (C) 1990.
Harrison, S., et al.2014Little Ice Age glaciers in Britain: Glacier-climate modelling in the Cairngorm MountainsHolocene24135-1400959-683610.1177/0959683613516170://WOS:000329828000001It is widely believed that the last glaciers in the British Isles disappeared at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9-11.7 cal. kyr BP). Here, we use a glacier-climate model driven by data from local weather stations to show for the first time that glaciers developed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Cairngorm Mountains. Our model is forced from contemporary conditions by a realistic difference in mean annual air temperature of -1.5 degrees C and an increase in annual precipitation of 10%, and confirmed by sensitivity analyses. These results are supported by the presence of small boulder moraines well within Younger Dryas ice limits, and by a dating programme on a moraine in one cirque. As a result, we argue that the last glaciers in the Cairngorm Mountains (and perhaps elsewhere in upland Britain) existed in the LIA within the last few hundred years, rather than during the Younger Dryas.
Harrison, T.N.1986The mode of emplacement of the Cairngorm GraniteScottish Journal of Geology22303-3140036-927610.1144/sjg22030303://WOS:A1986G648900003
Harrison, T.N.1988Magmatic garnets in the Cairngorm granite, ScotlandMineralogical Magazine52659-6670026-461X10.1180/minmag.1988.052.368.10://WOS:A1988R105500009;
Harrison, T.N.1990Chemical variation in micas from the Cairngorm pluton, ScotlandMineralogical Magazine54355-3660026-461X10.1180/minmag.1990.054.376.01://WOS:A1990EL84400001;
Harry, W.T.1965The form of the Cairngorm granite plutonScottish Journal of Geology11-800369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg01010001 Cairngorm Granite mass appears to be a discordant stock-like intrusion. It comprises at least two important units, the Main Granite, which is largely a more or less even-grained microcline-oligoclase-biotite granite, and the Porphyritic Granite generally distinguished by conspicuous felspar phenocrysts. Contacts between these two units are steep, like the external boundaries of the entire granite mass.
Harte, B.1978The Tarfside succession and the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern Scottish Dalradian rocksGeological Society Special Publication8221-22803058719 (ISSN)10.1144/gsl.Sp.1979.008.01.22 and quartzites within the Tarfside culmination of Glen Esk (Angus) are correlated with the upper part of the Dalradian Argyll Group, and form part of a right way up succession extending upwards into the Southern Highland Group. This correlation makes the Tarfside limestones stratigraphically equivalent to the Loch Tay and Deeside limestones in the inverted flat belt of the Tay nappe. The zone of inversion between the Tarfside succession and that of Deeside and Loch Tay lies in the headwaters of Glen Esk and further south; the Tarfside succession occupies the structural position of the right way up limb of the Pitlochry-Kirkmichael recumbent syncline beneath the Tay nappe. The actual inversion is thought to take place across a slide which also causes the sudden disappearance of the Green Beds. Evidence for sedimentary facies variation in the Tarfside rocks and their stratigraphical equivalents supports the interpretation of some of Read's Boyne Line phenomena (in Aberdeenshire and Banffshire) as being sedimentary facies variations. (C) 1979 Scottish Academic Press Ltd.
Hayhow, D.B., et al.2018The first UK survey and population estimate of breeding Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalisBird Study6536-430006-365710.1080/00063657.2018.1443057://WOS:000429208100004; The first national survey for Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis in the UK was carried out in 2011 and estimated the breeding population at 60 territories (95% confidence intervals = 48-83). Aims: To estimate breeding population size for Snow Buntings in the UK by surveying all sites with a history of breeding season occupation. Methods: Surveys were carried out in June 2011 to detect males on territory at sites where Snow Bunting had been recorded during the breeding season since 1970. Each site was visited at least once during the survey period; suitable habitat was searched and vantage point watches were conducted in order to detect singing males. Repeated visits to a sample of sites allowed a correction factor to be calculated in order to account for birds undetected during surveys. Results: In 2011, the number of Snow Bunting breeding in the UK (including adjusting for imperfect detection) is a minimum of 60 territories (95% CI = 48-83) using confirmed and probable breeding records of males. A less conservative estimate of 99 territories (95% CI = 88-114) results from including all records of males in suitable habitat. The vast majority of the population was found in the Cairngorm region, with isolated records in the north and west Highlands. Conclusion: The results of the 2011 survey are consistent with well-informed estimates of the Snow Bunting population made previously. This work provides a baseline and repeatable fieldwork and analytical methods enabling future change in the population to be quantified more rigorously.
Helliwell, R.C., et al.1998Influence of snow on the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Allt a' Mharcaidh, Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandScience of the Total Environment21759-700048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(98)00165-x://WOS:000075156600006; studies of winter snow pack accumulation and melt have been carried out in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment in the western Cairngorms, Scotland since 1989/90. These reveal marked variations in the annual snow pack accumulation which, in terms of peak volume (in water equivalents), ranges from < 25 mm in mild winters to >180 mm in severe ones. This volume, and the rate at which it melts, has a clear impact on the annual flow regime of the Allt a' Mharcaidh: major melt produces high peak flows, whilst the absence of a substantial snow pack in mild winters can result in low flows. The dynamics of snow pack chemistry have also been examined. In the severe winter of 1993/94 the results suggest enhanced acidic enrichment at greater altitude (> 900 m). In contrast, the smallest concentrations of acid anions (NO3, SO4, and Cl) were recorded during the mild winter of 1991/92. Limited snowfall at this time resulted in minimal accumulation of pollutants through dry deposition. Snowmelt events cause dramatic changes in the chemistry of the Allt a' Mharcaidh. High flows are accompanied by major acidic episodes produced by preferential elution of pollutants from snow which may have severe consequences for aquatic life. The most direct link between the quality of snow and runoff is the release of SO4 and Cl. Spatial variability in the extent and magnitude of melting produced a damped response in the stream signal over a short temporal scale. Ions derived from marine sources were enhanced by a factor of 2 in the snowpack compared to the damped concentration in the meltwater. The Cairngorm mountains is a high amenity area renowned for its outstanding natural beauty. It is widely recognised that this fragile environment is of national importance, which is further justification for continued research interest in this area. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Hester, A.J.; Miles, J.; Gimingham, C.H.1991Succession from heather moorland to birch woodland. I. Experimental alteration of specific environmental conditions in the fieldJournal of Ecology79303-31500220477 (ISSN)10.2307/2260714; effects of experimental alteration of light intensity, nutrient availability and simultated grazing on plant communities beneath different ages of birch are examined at Glenlivet (Grampian) and Speyside (Highland Region), Scotland. A generalized sequence of changes in species dominance as the birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) ages is identified. Calluna vulgaris gradually declines and is replaced by Vaccinium myrtillus as the birch canopy closes. This is subsequently replaced by Deschampsia flexuosa and then Agrostis capillaris as the woodland matures and the canopy opens out. Growth of Calluna was greatly reduced in shaded plots and nutrient addition had no significant compensatory effect. Empetrum nigrum showed similar growth responses. Vaccinium myrtillus and D. flexuosa also grew less well in reduced light but D. flexuosa responded positively to nutrient addition. Clipping reduced the growth of Calluna, E. nigrum, V. myrtillus and D. flexuosa in most plots. Only Galium saxatile showed increased growth after clipping at one site. -from Authors
Hester, A.J.; Miller, D.R.; Towers, W.1996Landscape-scale vegetation change in the Cairngorms, Scotland, 1946-1988: Implications for land managementBiological Conservation7741-510006-320710.1016/0006-3207(96)80650-1://WOS:A1996UP45500006; cover change data were derived from interpretation of aerial photographs taken in 1946 and 1988 for 1000 km(2) area of the Cairngorms area, Scotland. These data are compared with qualitative predictions based on the successional models of Miles (1985 J. Soil. Sci., 36). The impacts of man are shown to have been of the greatest magnitude, with conifer planting showing the greatest net increase in area between 1946 and 1988. Successional changes in semi-natural vegetation did occur but none totalled more than 5 km(2). Areas of semi-natural woodland were already scarce by 1946, but the extensive areas of heather also showed few successional transitions to other communities, such as grassland, scrub or woodland. The findings ave discussed in relation to changes in land use and herbivore densities over this time period. The theoretical successional framework of Miles (1985), with the important addition of the more direct effects of man, is shown to be a valuable tool for the examination of vegetation change data and the implications for management in an area such as the Cairngorms. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
Hetherington, D.2018Conservation of mountain fwoodland in the cairngorms national parkBritish WildlifeBritish Wildlife Publishing29393-40009580956 (ISSN)
Hewson, R.1973The moults of captive Scottish ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)Journal of Zoology171177-18709528369 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1469-7998.1973.tb02214.x; moults of captive Scottish ptarmigan were studied at Banchory, north‐east Scotland from December 1968 to February 1971. In the autumn moult (June to September) which included the primaries, cock ptarmigan moulted earlier and more completely than hens. In the winter moult (September to February) hens moulted earlier and both sexes moulted more completely than in spring. In the spring moult (February to June) cocks moulted more rapidly to begin with but by mid‐April hens had caught up and thereafter moulted at least as rapidly as cocks. When kept indoors at slightly higher temperatures ptarmigan grew more pigmented feathers during the winter moult. In a colder winter the birds became whiter than in a milder one. First‐winter ptarmigan completed the winter moult later than older birds. Birds from the Cairnwell hills had more dark feathers in winter than those from the eastern Cairngorms. There was no correlation between the start or finish of egg‐laying and moulting. Copyright (C) 1973, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Holden, A.1998The use of visitor understanding in skiing management and development decisions at the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandTourism Management19145-1520261-517710.1016/s0261-5177(97)00106-4://WOS:000074822000005; Cairngorm ski area is situated in the north-east area of Scotland in an area of outstanding natural beauty and ecological significance. Subsequently, development of the mountainside for skiing has been a contentious issue, particularly in the last two decades, as new development schemes have been proposed. Yet the skiing industry provides economic benefits, such as jobs and social stability, to the area. In 1992 a working party was established by the Secretary of State for Scotland with the purpose of developing a management scheme for the whole of the Cairngorm mountains. The draft plan was published in 1996, a part of which refers to the development of skiing at Cairngorm, A key aspect of future development at Cairngorm rests on a better understanding of skiers' needs and attitudes. This article is based upon interviews conducted with 490 skiers at Cairngorm during the winter of 1996/97, concerning both their expressed needs and environmental attitudes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holden, A.1999High impact tourism: A suitable component of sustainable policy? the case of downhill skiing development at Cairngorm, ScotlandJournal of Sustainable Tourism797-10709669582 (ISSN)10.1080/09669589908667329; development of tourism in mountain areas can have profound influences on both the local economy and physical environment. One type of tourism activity which has aroused controversy because ofits negative consequences for the landscape is downhill skiing. As the concept of sustainability becomes increasingly influential in policy making, the future of downhill skiing in mountain areas can be viewed as uncertain. However, the extent to which policy will shift from an anthropocentric bias towards a more ecocentric approach is uncertain. One mountainous area that has recently developed a sustainable management strategy is the Cairngorms area of the Scottish Highlands. The development of downhill skiing in this area is highly contentious owing to the uniqueness of the physical environment. Using the case study and different perspectives on sustainability, the role of downhill skiing is evaluated as part of a sustainable policy for mountain areas. (C) 1999, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Holzer, J.M., et al.2018Negotiating local versus global needs in the International Long Term Ecological Research Network's socio-ecological research agendaEnvironmental Research Letters131748-932610.1088/1748-9326/aadec8://WOS:000446692600001;; the past decade, long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER) has been established to better integrate social science research and societal concerns into the goals and objectives of the International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network, an established global network of long-term ecological monitoring sites. The Horizon 2020 eLTER project, currently underway, includes as one of its key objectives to evaluate the performance of LTSER platforms. This article reflects part of this evaluation: six LTSER platforms were assessed through site visits of the lead author, coupled with reflections and insights of the platform managers, who are also co-authors. We provide background for the mission and goals of LTSER, then assess the six international LTSER platforms-Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, USA; Braila Island LTSER, Romania; Cairngorms LTSER, UK; Donana LTSER, Spain; Omora Ethnobotanical Park Cape Horn LTER, Chile; and Sierra Nevada LTSER, Spain. While based on a strong theoretical foundation in socio-ecological research, there has been a steep learning curve for scientists applying the concept in practice at LTSER platforms. We show positive impacts that have been achieved, including contributions to policy, land-use planning, and natural resource management. We explain key aspects of LTSER platforms that have proven challenging, including management, interdisciplinary integration, and stakeholder collaboration. We characterize the tensions between top-down desires for network harmonization, bottom-up demands such as local policy relevance, and platform-level constraints such as time and budget. Finally, we discuss challenges, such as local context dominating the character of LTSER platforms, and the fact that scientists are often disincentivized from engaging in transdisciplinary science. Overall, we conclude that while the international network offers important advantages to its members, a more productive balance between local and global goals could be achieved, and members may need to temper their expectations of what the network can and cannot offer at the local level.
Hubbard, A., et al.2009Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British-Irish ice sheetQuaternary Science Reviews28758-7760277-379110.1016/j.quascirev.2008.12.026://WOS:000265005700014; present results from a suite of forward transient numerical modelling experiments of the British and Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS), consisting of Scottish, Welsh and Irish accumulation centres, spanning the last Glacial period from 38 to 10 ka BP. The 3D thermomechanical model employed uses higher-order physics to solve longitudinal (membrane) stresses and to reproduce grounding-line dynamics. Surface mass balance is derived using a distributed degree-day calculation based on a reference climatology from mean (1961-1990) precipitation and temperature patterns. The model is perturbed from this reference state by a scaled NGRIP oxygen isotope curve and the SPECMAP sea-level reconstruction. Isostatic response to ice loading is computed using an elastic lithosphere/relaxed asthenosphere scheme. A suite of 350 simulations were designed to explore the parameter space of model uncertainties and sensitivities, to yield a subset of experiments that showed close correspondence to offshore and onshore ice-directional indicators, broad MIS chronology, and the relative sea-level record. Three of these simulations are described in further detail and indicate that the separate ice centres of the modelled BIIS complex are dynamically interdependent during the build up to maximum conditions, but remain largely independent throughout much of the simulation. The modelled MIS is extremely dynamic, drained mainly by a number of transient but recurrent ice streams which dynamically switch and fluctuate in extent and intensity on a centennial time-scale. A series of binge/purge, advance/retreat, cycles are identified which correspond to alternating periods of relatively cold-based ice, (associated with a high aspect ratio and net growth), and wet-based ice with a lower aspect ratio, characterised by streaming. The timing and dynamics of these events are determined through a combination of basal thermomechanical switching spatially propagated and amplified through longitudinal coupling, but are modulated and phase-lagged to the oscillations within the NGRIP record of climate forcing. Phases of predominant streaming activity coincide with periods of maximum ice extent and are triggered by abrupt transitions from a cold to relatively warm climate, resulting in major iceberg/melt discharge events into the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The broad chronology of the modelled MIS indicates a maximum extent at similar to 20 ka, with fast-flowing ice across its western and northern sectors that extended to the continental shelf edge. Fast-flowing streams also dominate the Irish Sea and North Sea Basin sectors and impinge onto SW England and East Anglia. From similar to 19 ka BP deglaciation is achieved in less than 2000 years, discharging the freshwater equivalent of similar to 2 m global sea-level rise. A much reduced ice sheet centred on Scotland undergoes subsequent retrenchment and a series of advance/retreat cycles into the North Sea Basin from 17 ka onwards, culminating in a sustained Younger Dryas event from 13 to 11.5 ka BP. Modelled ice cover is persistent across the Western and Central Highlands until the last remnant glaciers disappear around 10.5 ka BP. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hutchison, A.G.1933XX.—The Metamorphism of the Deeside Limestone, AberdeenshireTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh57557-59200804568 (ISSN)10.1017/s0080456800016823;
Illsley, D.; Richardson, T.2004New national parks for Scotland: Coalitions in conflict over the allocation of planning powers in the CairngormsJournal of Environmental Planning and Management47219-24209640568 (ISSN)10.1080/0964056042000209094; introduction of national parks in areas where existing authorities have traditionally been responsible for developing policies, preparing plans and making decisions on development proposals, can be a threat to longstanding interests. This paper explores this problem by examining the struggle for control of planning in one of Scotland's first national parks, the Cairngorms. Recent research (McCarthy et al., 2002) has established the policy context for this investigation. Informed by research focusing on the consultation process which led to the establishment of the national park, this paper analyzes how alternative approaches to the allocation of planning powers were captured in competing storylines, around which polarized coalitions of interest formed. Opening such insights into the considerations that shape institutional design-a combination of contested problem framing and straightforward political struggles over the locus of regulatory power-starkly reveals the challenges to the new park authority as it seeks to establish consensus between conflicting interests. (C) 2004 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Ingram, M.1958The ecology of the Cairngorms. 4. The Juncus zone - Juncus trifidus communitiesJournal of Ecology46707-&0022-047710.2307/2257546://WOS:A1958XM35700009;
Ings, T.C.; Hartley, S.E.1999The effect of habitat structure on carabid communities during the regeneration of a native Scottish forestForest Ecology and Management119123-1360378-112710.1016/s0378-1127(98)00517-9://WOS:000079910600011; study investigates the effects of habitat structure on the ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) community composition of a regenerating native forest in the Deeside region of northeast Scotland. The composition of the carabid communities of the different habitats ranging from open heather moor to mature stages of pine and birch regeneration was strongly influenced by vegetation composition and structure; specifically,, tree height and density, amount of moss, Calluna + Erica cover, vegetation depth, and soil organic matter content. Two separate communities were apparent in this study, comprising species of woodland and/or shady habitats with dense vegetation, and species of dryer open habitats. Carabid species richness was highest in the open habitats and lowest in the woodland habitats; the presence of young pine trees had Little effect on diversity, but as tree size increased, diversity fell whilst mean catch size increased. It is suggested that to preserve the conservation value of Scottish uplands for carabid beetles whilst restoring native Scottish forests, a mosaic of the different stages of regeneration interspersed with tracts of open moorland is required. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Jackson-Blake, L., et al.2012Controls on soil solution nitrogen along an altitudinal gradient in the Scottish uplandsScience of the Total Environment431100-1080048-969710.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.05.019://WOS:000306887900013; (N) deposition continues to threaten upland ecosystems, contributing to acidification, eutrophication and biodiversity loss. We present results from a monitoring study aimed at investigating the fate of this deposited N within a pristine catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland). Six sites were established along an elevation gradient (486-908 m) spanning the key habitats of temperate maritime uplands. Bulk deposition chemistry, soil carbon content, soil solution chemistry, soil temperature and soil moisture content were monitored over a 5 year period. Results were used to assess spatial variability in soil solution N and to investigate the factors and processes driving this variability. Highest soil solution inorganic N concentrations were found in the alpine soils at the top of the hillslope. Soil carbon stock, soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and factors representing site hydrology were the best predictors of NO3- concentration, with highest concentrations at low productivity sites with low DOC and freely-draining soils. These factors act as proxies for changing net biological uptake and soil/water contact time, and therefore support the hypothesis that spatial variations in soil solution NO3- are controlled by habitat N retention capacity. Soil percent carbon was a better predictor of soil solution inorganic N concentration than mass of soil carbon. NH4+ was less affected by soil hydrology than NO3- and showed the effects of net mineralization inputs, particularly at Racomitrium heath and peaty sites. Soil solution dissolved organic N concentration was strongly related to both DOC and temperature, with a stronger temperature effect at more productive sites. Due to the spatial heterogeneity in N leaching potential, a fine-scale approach to assessing surface water vulnerability to N leaching is recommended over the broad scale, critical loads approach currently in use, particularly for sensitive areas. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jakeman, A.J., et al.1990A method for predicting the extremes of stream acidity and other water quality variablesJournal of Hydrology116375-39000221694 (ISSN)10.1016/0022-1694(90)90134-j; hydbrid deterministic - statistical approach is proposed for modelling the extremes of water quality in catchments subjected to long-term acidification. The approach is based on process models describing the long-term variations in mean chemistry. Superimposed on these mean projections are distributions providing information on the extremes of water quality which are fitted to catchment data using maximum likelihood techniques. The approach is general and can be applied to the prediction of other water quality variables where samples can be regarded as belonging to a parametric probability distribution. A simple implementation of the approach using chemical data and a calibrated deterministic model for the Allt a' Mharcaidh is used as an illustrative method. (C) 1990.
James, J.C.; Grace, J.; Hoad, S.P.1994Growth and photosynthesis of Pinus sylvestris at its altitudinal limit in ScotlandJournal of EcologyBlackwell Publishing Ltd82297-30600220477 (ISSN)10.2307/2261297;
Jarman, D.; Wilson, P.; Harrison, S.2013Are there any relict rock glaciers in the British mountains?Journal of Quaternary Science28131-1430267-817910.1002/jqs.2574://WOS:000315053200003; existence of a small population of relict rock glaciers' scattered across the main British mountain areas has previously been inferred from published cases of individual sites or local clusters. Discrete debris accumulations (DDAs) of widely differing character have been identified as ice-debris landforms (whether rock glaciers' or protalus lobes') partly from morphological, sedimentological and topo-locational evidence, but principally by analogy with both active and relict examples in present-day arctic/alpine environments, with consequent palaeoclimate inferences. However, re-interpretation of several supposed rock glaciers as rock slope failures has cast doubt on both the palaeoclimatic reconstructions and the origin of the remaining features. Issues of polygenesis and mimicry/equifinality have contributed to some previous misidentifications. We re-evaluate the 28 candidate cases based on new field and image-analysis evidence and place them on a continuum from no ice presence through passive ice presence and glacial shaping to emplacement onto glacier ice with consequent melt-out topography. A null hypothesis approach (that there are no relict rock glaciers in the British mountains) is pursued, and the evidence indicates that none of the 28 cases clearly warrants classification as a relict rock glacier; their characteristics can be explained without recourse to any significant forward debris movement controlled or facilitated by incorporated or underlying ice as it deforms and melts out. However, only one-third of the candidate DDAs are attributed in whole or part to rock slope failure (sensu stricto), with other debris sources including incremental rockfall, bedrock knolls with coarse debris veneer, protalus rampart and moraine. A few cases deserve more detailed investigation of their structure, morphology and sediments within a broader local glaciological/topographical context, with multitemporal/polygenetic evolution in mind. But it is for future researchers to demonstrate that deforming ice played an incontestable part in shaping these often enigmatic DDAs, given that other causes are simpler and commoner. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jenkins, A.; Ferrier, R.; Waters, D.1993Melt water chemistry and its impact on stream water qualityHydrological Processes7193-2030885-608710.1002/hyp.3360070209://WOS:A1993KZ95800008; of snowpack leachate were collected over a 60 day period of the spring melt season in 1988 and 1989 at a 10 km2 upland catchment in the Cairngorm mountains of Scotland. These were analysed for major ions to assess snowpack chemistry dynamics through the spring and to assess the melt water influence on stream water chemistry. The data clearly show preferential elution of sulphate and nitrate over chloride and hydrogen over the other cations during the early melt of 1988. Following the addition of ions to the snow surface, either as snow or later in the season as rain, the elution sequence is reproduced. Comparison of leachate chemistry with stream chemistry samples taken at the basin outlet indicate that snow pack melt water contributes directly to stream water. The stream water chemistry signal is, however, noisy and the stream concentrations are considerably damped relative to the snowpack leachate. This is thought to be a consequence of differential melting within the catchment as the snowpack at lower altitudes is at a more advanced stage of melt and so holds fewer solutes and mixing with groundwater contributions. Temperature observations at different altitudes within the catchment support this interpretation.
Jenkins, D.1980Ecology of otters in northern Scotland. 1. Otter (Lutra-lutra) breeding and dispersion in mid-Deeside, Aberdeenshire in 1974-79Journal of Animal Ecology49713-7350021-879010.2307/4223://WOS:A1980KQ34700004;
Jenkins, D.1981Ecology of otters in Northern Scotland IV. A model scheme for otter Lutra lutra L. conservation in a freshwater system in aberdeenshireBiological Conservation20123-13200063207 (ISSN)10.1016/0006-3207(81)90023-9; for inclusion within otter havens are illustrated from a case-history study on the middle part of the Aberdeenshire River Dee. The environment is divided into breeding and rearing areas and places for non-breeding otters. One good location for a haven incorporating all three habitats includes 12-13 km of river and two nearly lochs. In this area, part of the river bank is inaccessible, and there are secluded islands and deep woods. Havens should include tiny tributaries leading to shelter where otters are likely to have their young. An otter haven in mid-Deeside planned to incorporate all these habitats may be regarded as a model for conservation that could be followed in other similar environments elsewhere. (C) 1981.
Jenkins, D.; Harper, R.J.1980Ecology of otters in northern Scotland. 2. Analysis of otter (Lutra-lutra) and mink (Mustela-vision) feces from Deeside, NE Scotland in 1977-78Journal of Animal Ecology49737-7540021-879010.2307/4224://WOS:A1980KQ34700005;
Jenkins, D.; Sparks, T.H.2010The changing bird phenology of Mid Deeside, Scotland 1974-2010Bird Study57407-4140006-365710.1080/00063657.2010.505946://WOS:000287651300001; Marked changes were observed in the spring phenology of birds and were more apparent in residents and short-distance migrants than in trans-Mediterranean migrants. Aims To examine changes in first songs and arrivals of birds in northeast Scotland. Methods First song or first observations of 38 species were recorded between 1974 and 2010. Trends through time, and relationships with regional variation in temperature, were both examined. Results There was a strong tendency for first song/first arrival dates to advance, with the average change being an advance of 25 days over the 37 years of study (or 0.7 days per year). Change was greater in the dates of first song of resident species than in the first detection of short-distance and trans-Mediterranean migrants. Relationships with temperature were apparent, but were significant for fewer than half of the species. Conclusion Bird species vary greatly in their phenological response to climate warming. The recent decade of sustained higher spring temperatures has enabled greater detection of change in long-term time series, and milder winters (except 2009/10) have also increased the incidence of wintering in short-distance migrants.
Jenkins, D.; Walker, J.G.K.; McCowan, D.1979Analyses of otter Lutra lutra faeces from Deeside, N.E. ScotlandJournal of Zoology187235-24409528369 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1469-7998.1979.tb03946.x; faeces were collected at monthly intervals from around two lakes near the River Dee in Aberdeenshire in 1975 and 1976. They were analysed to show the frequency of occurrence of identifiable undigested items and also the relative bulk of these different items. Statistical differences were recorded in frequency of occurrence. The main food was eel in both years with small perch also important in January to June and amphibia in the spring. A reduction in the frequency of eel in the faeces was associated with fewer observations of otters. Copyright (C) 1979, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Jenkins, D.; Watson, A.2000Dates of first arrival and song of birds during 1974-99 in mid-Deeside, ScotlandBird Study47249-2510006-365710.1080/00063650009461183://WOS:000087978900016;
Jenkins, D.; Watson, A.2000Erratum: Dates of first arrival and song of birds during 1974-99 in mid-Deeside, Scotland (Bird Study 47 (249-251))Bird Study4737700063657 (ISSN)
Jenkins, D.; Watson, A.2000Dates of first arrival and song of birds during 1974–99 in mid-deeside, scotlandBird Study47249-25100063657 (ISSN)10.1080/00063650009461183;
Jones, B.M.G.1963Anthoxanthum alpinum A. and D. Löve, new to the British IslesNature19861000280836 (ISSN)10.1038/198610a0; GRASS, referable to Anthoxanthum alpinum A. and D. Löve, has been collected from a snow patch in the Cairngorms near the Invernesshire-Aberdeenshire border. This species was described in 19481 from Swedish Lappland on the basis of a few morphological characters which distinguish it from the widespread Anthoxanthum odoratum L. because it also differed from that tetraploid species (2n = 20) in being a diploid (2n = 10)2. It has an arctic-alpine type of distribution in northern Europe from Iceland to Finland and in the Swiss Alps. Tutin3 confirmed the diploid chromosome number in Swiss material and gave further morphological criteria for the separation of these species. He also suggested that Anthoxanthum alpinum might occur in the British Isles as it is readily confused with the widespread A. odoratum. (C) 1963 Nature Publishing Group.
Jones, V.J., et al.1993Palaeolimnological evidence for the acidification and atmospheric contamination of lochs in the Cairngorm and Lochnagar areas of ScotlandJournal of Ecology813-240022-047710.2307/2261220://WOS:A1993KU23400001; A palaeolimnological investigation has shown that lochs in the Cairngorm and Lochnagar mountains of Scotland have been acidified and contaminated by air pollution. This is of particular concern in this area of national and international importance for nature conservation. 2. Of the five-sites studied, four show a clear acidification. At three of these sites (Lochan Uaine, Lochnagar and Dubh Loch) acidification began in the mid to late nineteenth century. At the fourth site (Loch nan Eun) the onset of acidification cannot be established due to radiometric dating problems, but there has been a clear pH decline since 1900. There is no evidence of recent acidification at the fifth site (Loch Coire an Lochan), but interpretation of the sedimentary record is difficult due to the very low sediment accumulation rate. 3. All the lochs show evidence of atmospheric contamination indicated by increasing concentrations of carbonaceous particles. There is also evidence of enhanced lead and zinc concentrations at four of the sites (Lochan Uaine, Loch nan Eun, Dubh Loch and Lochnagar), and three sites (Lochnagar, Lochan Uaine and Dubh Loch also show increased concentrations of magnetic minerals. 4. The lochs are less acidified and less contaminated than sites situated in the south-west of Scotland where sulphur deposition is higher.
Jorgensen, M.W., et al.2015Calf mortality in semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in a Scottish herd: the impact of maternal age and individual differences between cowsAnimal Welfare24173-1830962-728610.7120/09627286.24.2.173://WOS:000354062300005High calf mortality rate is a significant problem facing semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) production around the world. Mortality rates, commonly due to predation, can range from 5 to 70%, which constitutes a great welfare concern. This study examined the influence of quantifiable maternal characteristics on reindeer calf survival. Data were compiled from 18 years' worth of records on the survival of calves in the Cairngorm reindeer herd (Scottish Highlands, UK). Overall, mortality rate of calves (n = 635) in the herd was 34.9% to six months old, rising to 47.8% by one year old. For both Total Calf Survival (including perinatal losses) and Postnatal Calf Survival (excluding perinatal losses) of calves up to six months old, the only maternal trait found to significantly influence calf survival was the age of the cow at calving. Calves of very young and old cows showed higher mortality rates. Only 40% of the cows were associated with 77% of calf deaths and it was demonstrated that there were significant individual differences between cows in relation to their ability to consistently rear calves successfully. These findings can be applied to reduce calf mortality within herds, guiding selection towards females with successful reproductive histories and with ages falling in the prime productive range (3-11 years old). Additionally, annual variation had a highly significant influence on calf survival with rising mortality over the recorded period, indicating a role of environment on survival and an avenue for further research to investigate the impact of external factors, such as climate and pathogen load on post-natal loss.
Joyce, A.2001Weather variability and Scottish ice climbingScottish Geographical Journal11717-300036-922510.1080/00369220118737108://WOS:000172318500002; paper assesses relationships between Scottish ice climbing and daily weather conditions between 1961 and 1990. Synoptic air flow and instrumental climate data from Braemar and Fort Augustus were analysed in relation to first ascents of ice climbs in the Caimgorms, and on Ben Nevis and Creag Meagaidh. Lagged weather variables were calculated and stepwise logistic regression was used to estimate optimum models for both areas. Significant variables are anticyclonicity, low minimum air temperature and northerly or easterly airflow (Cairngorms, P = 0.0006); and northerly or easterly airflow, low minimum air temperature and low precipitation (Ben Nevis and Creag Meagaidh, P < 0.0001). A five-day cold spell is optimum for Ben Nevis and Creag Meagaidh. A week with relatively little precipitation is beneficial in both areas. Air flow direction is more influential than vorticity, the optimum predictors of ice conditions using synoptic data alone We a persistent easterly component (beneficial), and a persistent southerly and westerly component (detrimental), P < 0.0001.
Kay, A.L.2016A review of snow in Britain: The historical picture and future projectionsProgress in Physical Geography40676-6980309-133310.1177/0309133316650617://WOS:000386007400003Climate change is likely to have a significant effect on snow globally, with most effect where current winter temperatures are close to 0 degrees C, including parts of upland Britain. There is evidence of decreasing trends in observations of snowfall and lying snow in Britain, and climate projections suggest a continuation of this trend. Although river flows in Britain are generally dominated by rainfall rather than snowmelt, some upland catchments have a significant snowmelt contribution. There is evidence of changes in observed and projected river flows in some catchments in Britain, linked to changes in snow, but it can be difficult to distinguish the effects of snow changes from those of other concurrent changes (climatic and non-climatic). Flow regime changes in catchments with widespread and prolonged winter snow cover usually involve increases in winter flow and decreases in spring flow, but the effect on catchments with more transient snow cover is less clear, as is the effect on high flows and water quality. Snow can also affect a number of other factors of socio-economic or environmental importance (e.g. transport and farming). There is some evidence that disruption due to snow may be less frequent in the future, but disruption from other types of weather events may increase. The impacts of snow tend to be worse in areas where events occur less frequently, due to unpreparedness, so there is a need to guard against complacency when it comes to future snow events in Britain, which can still be expected despite a likely reduction in frequency. Further modelling of the potential impacts of climate change, including modelling the influence of snow changes as well as other climatic and non-climatic changes, would aid adaptation and encourage mitigation.
Keighley, M.2004Historic speyside mill fights for survivalWool Record1635702636131 (ISSN) Wool Mill, a category A listed company on Speyside, Europe, is striving for survival. The company, established in 1784, needs about £2.5 million for the restoration of its building and its existing machinery, for the production of wool blankets, district tweeds worn by gamekeepers and the cloth of the robes worn by monks. Though, this tiny woollen mill lost in the final round of the 'Restoration', a BBC television contest, to win the prize money for restoration activity, it is still making applications for raising funds and securing grants. As the mill in itself preserves the tradition of weaving of two centuries, crumbling of the building would mean crumbling of the two centuries of textile knowledge and skills. Despite these odds, the mill continues to weave the patterns and colors for which the Scottish fabrics are known.
Kendon, M.; Diggins, M.2018Severe weather and snow conditions on Cairngorm summit in February to March 2018WeatherJohn Wiley and Sons Ltd00431656 (ISSN)10.1002/wea.3390;
Kilshaw, K., et al.2015Detecting the elusive Scottish wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris using camera trappingOryx49207-2150030-605310.1017/s0030605313001154://WOS:000352628600010; monitoring is important for conservation management but difficult to achieve for rare, cryptic species. Reliable information about the Critically Endangered Scottish wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris is lacking because of difficulties in morphological and genetic identification, resulting from extensive hybridization with feral domestic cats Felis catus. We carried out camera-trap surveys in the Cairngorms National Park, UK, to examine the feasibility of camera trapping, combined with a pelage identification method, to monitor Scottish wildcats. Camera trapping detected individually identifiable wildcats. Of 13 individual wild-living cats, four scored as wildcats based on pelage characters and the rest were wildcat x domestic cat hybrids. Spatially explicit capture-recapture density estimation methods generated a density of wild-living cats (wildcats and hybrids) of 68.17 +/- SE 9.47 per 100 km(2). The impact of reducing trapping-grid size, camera-trap numbers and survey length on density estimates was investigated using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. Our findings indicate camera trapping is more effective for monitoring wildcats than other methods currently used and capture success could be increased by using bait, placing camera stations <= 1.5 km apart, increasing the number of camera stations, and surveying for 60-70 days. This study shows that camera trapping is effective for confirming the presence of the wildcat in potential target areas for conservation management.
King, R.B.1971Vegetation destruction in the sub-alpine and alpine zones of the Cairngorm MountainsScottish Geographical Magazine87103-11500369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369227108736185;; surfaces in the Cairngorm Mountains were investigated and found to be always associated with turf scarps and/or sand ripples. Measurements were taken of the orientation of turf scarps and sand ripples and were compared with rose diagrams of wind directions. Analysis seemed to show that turf scarps are primarily due to needle ice and that denuded surfaces are caused by both needle ice erosion and deflation, with the latter probably becoming more powerful as the denuded surfaces become larger. Small hillslope terraces, previously described as solifluction terraces, are considered here to be caused by aeolian action, possibly in the eighteenth century. (C) 1971 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Kirkbride, M., et al.2014Late-Holocene and Younger Dryas glaciers in the northern Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandHolocene24141-1480959-683610.1177/0959683613516171://WOS:000329828000002We present 17 cosmogenic Be-10 ages of glacial deposits in Coire an Lochain (Cairngorm Mountains), which demonstrate that glacial and nival deposits cover a longer timescale than previously recognised. Five ages provide the first evidence of a late-Holocene glacier in the British Isles. A previously unidentified moraine ridge was deposited after c. 2.8 kyr and defines a small slab-like glacier with an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) at c. 1047 m. The late-Holocene glacier was characterised by rapid firnification and a dominance of sliding, enabling the glacier to construct moraine ridges in a relatively short period. Isotopic inheritance means that the glacier may have existed as recently as the Little Ice Age' (LIA) of the 17th or 18th century ad, a view supported by glacier-climate modelling. Nine Be-10 ages confirm a Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS) age for a cirque-floor boulder till, and date the glacier maximum to c. 12.3 kyr when the ELA was at c. 963 m altitude. Both glaciers existed because of enhanced accumulation from wind-blown snow, but the difference in ELA of only c. 84 m belies the YDS-LIA temperature difference of c. 7 degrees C and emphasises the glacioclimatic contrast between the two periods. Three Be-10 ages from till boulders originally deposited in the YDS yield ages <5.5 kyr and indicate snow-avalanche disturbance of older debris since the mid-Holocene, as climate deteriorated towards marginal glaciation.
Kirkbride, M.P.2005Boulder edge‐roundness as an indicator of relative age: A lochnagar case studyScottish Geographical Journal121219-23614702541 (ISSN)10.1080/00369220518737232;; method is presented for quantifying the degree of edge roundness of large crystalline boulders using a simple instrument. The method utilises the transition due to granular disintegration from sharp to rounded boulder edges, so that the degree of edge roundness is a function of time and can be used as a relative dating tool. Edge roundness can be precisely measured in the field if strict morphological criteria are adhered to when selecting boulders to measure. Roundness can be expressed as a length measurement between fixed points on adjacent facets, as a normalised index, or as a radius of curvature. Boulder edge‐roundness was employed to resolve uncertainty over the extent of the ‘Loch Lomond Stadial’ (LLS) glacier in the North‐east Corrie of Lochnagar. Small but significant differences in edge roundness between two sets of moraine ridges indicate that the LLS glacier was smaller than that mapped by Sissons & Grant (1972). The moraine they ascribed to the LLS relates to an earlier advance within Late Devensian time. (C) 2005, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Kirkbride, M.P.2016A Snow-Push Mechanism for Ridge Formation in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandScottish Geographical Journal13266-731470-254110.1080/14702541.2015.1068948://WOS:000365666100004; are presented of a newly deposited snow-push ridge superimposed on a Holocene moraine in Coire an Lochain in the Cairngorm Mountains. The ridge formed when a sliding snow slab was thrust up the proximal slope of the moraine, entraining till gravel and redepositing it on the moraine crest. The process was a late-stage event during the complex wastage of a large snowfield resting on a rock slab, involving basal sliding, avalanching and melting. Snow-push landforms appear to be rare in Scotland. Nevertheless, these observations suggest that fresh material may be added to relict moraine crests in the present-day climate, with implications for exposure-age dating of moraines. However, in this case the addition of debris by snow push to a late Holocene moraine crest does not affect the interpretation of moraine age.
Kirkbride, M.P.; Mitchell, W.A.; Barnes, M.2015Reconstruction and Regional Significance of the Coire Breac Palaeoglacier, Glen Esk, Eastern Grampian Highlands, ScotlandGeografiska Annaler Series a-Physical Geography97563-5770435-367610.1111/geoa.12096://WOS:000361234200009; present a glaciological and climatic reconstruction of a former glacier in Coire Breac, an isolated cirque within the Eastern Grampian plateau of Scotland, 5 km from the Highland edge. Published glacier reconstructions of presumed Younger Dryas-age glaciers in this area show that equilibrium line altitudes decreased steeply towards the east coast, implying a arctic maritime glacial environment. Extrapolation of the ELA trend surface implies that glaciers should have existed in suitable locations on the plateau, a landscape little modified by glaciation. In Coire Breac, a 0.35 km(2) cirque glacier existed with an equilibrium line altitude of 487 +/- 15 m above present sea level. The equilibrium line altitude matches closely the extrapolated regional equilibrium line altitude trend surface for Younger Dryas Stadial glaciers. The mean glacier thickness of 24 m gives an ice volume of 7.8 x 10(6) m(3), and a maximum basal shear stress of c. 100 kPa(-1). Ablation gradient was c. -0.0055 m m(-1), with a mean July temperature at the equilibrium line altitude of c. 5.1 degrees C. The reconstruction implies an arctic maritime climate of low precipitation with local accumulation enhanced by blown snow, which may explain the absence of other contemporary glaciers nearby. Reconstructed ice flow lines show zones of flow concentration around the lower ice margin which help to explain the distribution of depositional facies associated with a former debris cover which may have delayed eventual glacier retreat. No moraines in the area have been dated, so palaeoclimatic interpretations remain provisional, and a pre-Lateglacial Interstadial age cannot be ruled out.
Kleissen, F.M., et al.1990Conservative mixing of water sources: Analysis of the behaviour of the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchmentJournal of Hydrology116365-37400221694 (ISSN)10.1016/0022-1694(90)90133-i; chemistry data from the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment (10 km2) in Scotland have been the subject of an analysis in which conservative mixing of two sources of constant concentration is assumed for individual chemical species. The analysis shows a consistent behaviour of alkalinity and total organic carbon (TOC), but other species have an apparently contrasting response. The implications are that event response is due primarily to low alkalinity, high TOC water (associated with soil water) and that baseflow is from an unidentified high alkalinity source. However, displacement of alkaline-rich water is apparent during larger events. Other species show constrasting response, possibly as a result of spatial heterogeneity. Despite the fact that many questions remain unanswered, this mixing analysis is a powerful tool for examining the data and can produce hypotheses for more detailed examination. (C) 1990.
Kleman, J.; Glasser, N.F.2007The subglacial thermal organisation (STO) of ice sheetsQuaternary Science Reviews26585-5970277-379110.1016/j.quascirev.2006.12.010://WOS:000245961600003; paper examines ice-sheet wide variations in subglacial thermal regime and ice dynamics using the landform record exposed on the beds of former mid-latitude ice sheets (the Laurentide, Cordilleran, Fennoscandian and British-Irish Ice Sheets). We compare the landform patterns beneath these former ice sheets to the flow organisation beneath parts of the contemporary Antarctic Ice Sheet inferred from RADARSAT-1 Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) data. The evidence preserved in the landform record and observed on contemporary ice masses can be grouped into four major ice-dynamical components that collectively define the subglacial thermal organisation (STO) of ice sheets. These ice-dynamical components are frozen-bed patches, ice streams, ice-stream tributaries and lateral shear zones. Frozen-bed patches appear at a wide range of spatial scales, spanning four orders of magnitude. In some areas, frozen-bed zones comprise large proportions of the bed (e.g. near the ice divide in continental areas), whilst in other areas they constitute isolated "islands" in areas dominated by thawed-bed conditions. fee streams, narrow zones of fast flow in ice sheets that are otherwise dominated by slow sheet flow, are also common features of Quaternary ice sheets. Tributaries to ice streams flow at velocities intermediate between full ice-stream and sheet flow, and may divert ice drainage from one primary ice-stream corridor to an adjacent one. Sharp lateral boundaries between landforms indicate sliding and non-sliding conditions, respectively. These lateral boundaries represent important discontinuities in the glacial landscape and mark the location of shear zones between thawed-bed ice streams and intervening frozen-bed areas. We use the landform evidence in the area around Great Bear Lake, Canada to trace the evolution of an ice-stream web through time, demonstrating that frozen-bed patches are integral components of this complex system. We conclude that frozen-bed patches Lire important for the stability of ice sheets because they laterally constrain and isolate peripheral drainage basins and their ice streams. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kruitbos, L.M., et al.2012Hydroclimatic and hydrochemical controls on Plecoptera diversity and distribution in northern freshwater ecosystemsHydrobiologia69339-530018-815810.1007/s10750-012-1085-1://WOS:000306066400004; ecosystems in the mid- to upper-latitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change as slight changes in air temperature can alter the form, timing, and magnitude of precipitation and consequent influence of snowmelt on streamflow dynamics. Here, we examine the effects of hydro-climate, flow regime, and hydrochemistry on Plecoptera (stonefly) alpha (alpha) diversity and distribution in northern freshwater ecosystems. We characterized the hydroclimatic regime of seven catchments spanning a climatic gradient across the northern temperate region and compared them with estimates of Plecoptera genera richness. By a space-for-time substitution, we assessed how warmer temperatures and altered flow regimes may influence Plecoptera alpha diversity and composition at the genus level. Our results show wide hydroclimatic variability among sites, including differences in temporal streamflow dynamics and temperature response. Principal component analysis showed that Plecoptera genera richness was positively correlated with catchment relief (m), mean and median annual air temperature (A degrees C), and streamflow. These results provide a preliminary insight into how hydroclimatic change, particularly in terms of increased air temperature and altered streamflow regimes, may create future conditions more favorable to some Plecopteras in northern catchments.
Kruuk, H.; Conroy, J.W.H.; Webb, A.1997Concentrations of mercury in otters (Lutra lutra L) in Scotland in relation to rainfallEnvironmental Pollution9613-180269-749110.1016/s0269-7491(97)00011-0://WOS:A1997XC30400002; of mercury (Hg) were measured in 112 livers of otters from various areas in Scotland during 1986-1992. Mercury concentration varied from 0.3-44.7 ppm (dry). There was a significant positive cop relation between Hg in otters and annual rainfall, consistent with an atmospheric origin of mercury pollution. Mercury concentration was higher in animals with lower body condition. Concentrations were shown to increase with the age of the animal, but not everywhere, and the correlation was weak. If appeared unlikely that during the study period otter numbers were affected by mercury. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Lance, A.; Thaxton, R.; Watson, A.1991Recent changes in footpath width in the CairngormsScottish Geographical Magazine107106-1090036-922510.1080/00369229118736817://WOS:A1991GE09400004;
Lance, A.N.; Baugh, I.D.; Love, J.A.1989Continued footpath widening in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandBiological Conservation49201-2140006-320710.1016/0006-3207(89)90036-0://WOS:A1989AJ95800004
Landsberger, S.; Davies, T.D.; Tranter, M.1990Trace metal and rare Earth content of black precipitation eventsEnergy Sources12363-36900908312 (ISSN)10.1080/00908319008960210; authors used the techniques of non destructive neutron activation analysis to determine trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events occurring in the Cairngorm Mountains in remote areas of Scotland. Thirty-one elements were determined in the particulate matter of snowpack cores that were sliced into sections. An additional analysis was performed for a black acidic snow event. Based on these results and on wind trajectories, increased loadings of many of the heavy metals and rare earth elements appeared to have originated from central Europe. Enrichment factor calculations showed anthropogenic emissions for indium, arsenic, zinc, and selenium. (C) 1990 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Landsberger, S., et al.1989The solute and particulate chemistry of background versus a polluted, black snowfall on the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandAtmospheric Environment23395-4011352-231010.1016/0004-6981(89)90585-4://WOS:A1989T726500008
Langran, M.2002Injury patterns in skiboarding - A 2-year study in ScotlandInjury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured33563-5680020-138310.1016/s0020-1383(02)00103-1://WOS:000178435100002; To examine the incidence and patterns of injury associated with skiboarding, a new snow sport whose Popularity has increased in recent years. Methods: A prospective study of all injured skiboarders at Cairngorm, Glenshee and Nevis Range ski areas during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 winter seasons. Personal details, skiboarding parameters, diagnosis and treatment were recorded. Random counts were performed to analyse the percentage of skiboarders amongst the on-slope Population. Results: The 84 injuries were recorded in 80 individuals. The injury rate for skiboarding was 252 mean days between injury (MDBI). Skiboarders comprised 5% of the total on-slope Population. Ligament sprains and fractures accounted for 49 and 36% of all injuries, respectively. Over 70% of all injuries affected the lower limb and 21% of injuries were below knee fractures. The incidence of upper limb injuries was lower than expected at 13% of total. Conclusions: Skiboarding, whilst not associated with an excess injury rate, has a unique pattern of injury with a higher fracture rate than any other snow sport. The rates of lower limb and upper limb injury may be explained by the use of a non-release binding and inherent differences in the nature of a skiboard fall. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langran, M.; Jachacy, G.B.; MacNeill, A.1996Ski injuries in Scotland - A review of statistics from Cairngorm ski area winter 1993/94Scottish Medical Journal41169-1720036-933010.1177/003693309604100605://WOS:A1996WA45100005Scottish skiing is a growth industry - nearly all acute ski injuries in Aviemore are managed initially by local general practitioners. This study set out to examine the nature and incidence of ski injuries in one Scottish ski resort, and to calculate the additional workload generated for the health centre, ambulance service and local hospital. During the study period, the winter ski season of 1993-94, a prospective study was made of the 486 acute ski injuries presenting to Aviemore Health Centre. Despite frequently poor weather conditions, the season's injury rate for Cairngorm was 2.43 per 1000 skier days which compares favourably with statistics fr om other ski centres world-wide. The anatomical pattern of injuries for both downhill skiing and snowboarding was similar to that of other countries. Knee injuries constituted nearly one third of all cases. 8% of injuries involved the ski lift machinery. 31% of casualties underwent radiographic examination, 17% needed hospital referral and 7% required admission to hospital. The management of acute ski injuries can be performed effectively in the primary care setting. It has significant benefits in rural areas by rationalising the use of ambulance and hospital services.
Langran, M.; Selvaraj, S.2002Snow sports injuries in Scotland: a case-control studyBritish Journal of Sports Medicine36135-1400306-367410.1136/bjsm.36.2.135://WOS:000174940700020; To examine the incidence and patterns of snow sports injuries at the three largest commercial ski areas in Scotland and to identify factors associated with injury risk. Methods: A prospective case-control study of all injured people at Cairngorm, Glenshee, and Nevis Range ski areas during the 1999-2000 winter season. Personal details, snow sports related variables, diagnosis, and treatment were recorded. Control data were collected at random from uninjured people at all three areas. Random counts were performed to analyse the composition of the on slope population, Results: A total of 732 injuries were recorded in 674 people. Control data were collected from 336 people. The injury rate For the study was 3.7 injuries per 1000 skier days. Alpine skiers comprised 67% of the on slope population, snowboarders 26%, skiboarders 4%, and telemark skiers 2%. Lower limb injuries and sprains were the commonest injuries in alpine skiers and skiboarders. Snowboarders sustained more injuries to the upper limb and axial areas. Skiboarders and snowboarders had a higher incidence of fractures. After adjustment for other variables, three factors were all independently associated with injury: snowboarding (odds ratio (OR) 4.07, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.65 to 10.08), alpine skiing (OR 3.82, CI 1.6 to 9.13), and age < 16 years (OR 1.9, CI 1.14 to 3.17). More than five days of experience in the current season and at least one week of experience in total had a protective effect against injury. Conclusions: Despite a change in the composition of the alpine population at Scottish ski areas, the overall rate and pattern of injury are similar to those reported previously in comparable studies. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of injury and should be targeted in future injury prevention campaigns.
Lee, D.2013A comparison of choice-based landscape preference models between British and Korean visitors to National ParksLife Science Journal102028-203610978135 (ISSN) study aims to formulate landscape preference models using a conditional logit model, and compares them between visitors to the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland and those to the Jirisan National Park in Korea. The visual elements of each landscape photograph were segmented using digital image processing, before reduced to orthogonal principal factors. The formulated models suggest that the effect of the Cairngorms landscape (exp(coef.=22.678)) was of more importance than that of the Jirisan landscape (exp(coef.=7.701) in determining landscape preferences of Cairngorms visitors, while the effect of the Jirisan landscape (exp(coef.=29.061)) was of more importance than that of the Cairngorms landscape (exp(coef.=18.131)) in determining landscape preferences of Jirisan visitors. This implies that, in determining landscape preference, the landscape effect of the National Park that is typical to respondents is larger than that of the different National Park, although visual elements play a considerable role.
Leeuwen, E.V.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nijkamp, P.2016Microsimulation and interregional input–output modelling as tools for multi-level policy analysisEnvironment and Planning C: Government and PolicySAGE Publications Ltd34135-1500263774X (ISSN)10.1177/0263774x15614720 article addresses the differentiated impacts of various sectors and branches in a multi-layer spatial system. The key question is whether in an interdependent spatial system – comprising a local, regional and national component – one or more core industries or sectors can be identified that may act as strategic handles for long-range sustainable development of a local economy. As a case study, the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland is used. In this area, policy makers – at different administrative levels – strongly emphasize the need for new sustainable economic development. We use a novel combination of stakeholder analysis (with household questionnaires) and multi-level interregional input–output analysis to identify which critical local key sectors are acting as carriers for local sustainability. The methodological vehicle employed in our study is based on microsimulation, as a tool to cope with limited data availability. This paper demonstrates how, even for small areas such as the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland, survey information combined with secondary data and existing input–output tables can be integrated into a useful policy toolbox for local sustainable development in a broader regional-national context. (C) 2016, (C) The Author(s) 2016.
Leslie, R.2004Putting theory into practiceSmithers, R.Landscape Ecology of Trees and ForestsLymmIale (Uk), Int Assoc Landscapeecol281-2870-9547130-1-X://WOS:000226029800035As Britain's largest land manager, the Forestry Commission is a leader in restoration and management at a landscape-scale. The paper gives practical examples over the last 25 years including: the restructuring of Kielder Forest; heathland re-creation in Dorset; landscape-scale planning and restoration in the New Forest; conservation management in the western Cairngorms; and restoration of ancient woodland in England. It draws from Dutch and Polish models to look into the future, identifying socially driven low-intensity land management as the biggest opportunity for new landscape-scale conservation development. It identifies, as the key drivers to practical action: vision; scale; natural processes; people and partnerships.
Liddle, M.J.1991Recreation ecology - effects of trampling on plants and coralsTrends in Ecology & Evolution613-170169-534710.1016/0169-5347(91)90141-j://WOS:A1991EX20900005; ecology deals with the impact of outdoor recreation on natural or semi-natural environments. The main activity considered in this review is walking (or trampling) but the effects of camping, horse riding, off-road vehicles, trail bikes and boating have all been studied 1-4. The different levels of enquiry reviewed here, from overall community changes to plant (or in one case coral) morphology and plant anatomy, have gone hand in hand with management recommendations based on fundamental work. The newer approaches include genetic analysis, a new structure for impact theory and more accurate predictive techniques for management.
Light, J.J.; Belcher, J.H.1968A snow microflora in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandBritish Phycological Bulletin3471-47303746534 (ISSN)10.1080/00071616800650061; association of snow algae and fungi from a corrie in the Cairngorms is described and illustrated. This is the first detailed account of a snow microflora from Britain, though Chlamydomonas nivalis was collected twice last century. (C) 1968 The British Phycological Society. All Rights Reserved.
Lindsay, N.G.; Haselock, P.J.; Harris, A.L.1989The extent of Grampian orogenic activity in the Scottish HighlandsJournal - Geological Society (London)146733-735 in Atholl nappe Grampian Division rocks in the Tayside Region can be traced NW into the supposedly older Central Highland Division in Speyside and Strath Nairn where they are the earliest fabrics present. Grampian Division/Central Highland Division contrasts appear to involve a gradational metamorphic change, and the existence of the Grampian slide supposed by previous workers to separate the two units has not been confirmed. Atholl nappe fabrics have been shown to be coeval with those of Grampian orogenesis in the Tay nappe where their age is constrained by the 590±2 Ma Ben Vuirich granite. Grampian orogenic structures can thus be traced, as the earliest structures present, as far as the Great Glen fault, a conclusion which may have a bearing on the significance of the fault as a terrane boundary. -Authors
Long, D.G.; Paton, J.A.; Rothero, G.P.1990Marsupella arctica (Berggr.) Bryhn & Kaal. in Scotland, new to the British IslesJournal of Bryology16163-17103736687 (ISSN)10.1179/jbr.1990.16.2.163; arctica (Berggr.) Bryhn & Kaal. in Scotland, new to the British Isles. The liverwort Marsupella arctica is reported from two localities in the Cairngorm Mountains, new to Britain, a major and unexpected extension of range. It is described and illustrated from Scottish material and compared with Arctic specimens. An account of its ecology in Scotland is presented along with notes on its distribution elsewhere and a distribution map.;
Lorimer, H.2003Telling small stories: spaces of knowledge and the practice of geographyTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers28197-2170020-275410.1111/1475-5661.00087://WOS:000183851600006; article examines how the practice of learning geography, and the arenas in which knowledge-making takes place, can be usefully positioned within changing histories of the discipline. It contends that networks of action - understood through the intersection of social sites, subjects and sources - present a conceptual framework and narrative focus for the re-consideration of specific episodes from geography's past. The interventions made here are informed and illustrated by a 'small story' about the doing of geography. Based on different personal accounts, the story revives a series of events, encounters, dialogues and images dating back to the winter of 1951 at Glenmore Lodge, Scotland. This educational institution in the Cairngorm mountains offered children from urban areas the opportunity to learn field studies and the skills of 'outdoor citizenship'. Initially, the focus falls on Margaret Jack, a 14-year-old field-course participant. Her learning experiences are traced through personal letters, a diary and a field journal dating from that time, and her recent recollections of this event. Margaret's account dovetails with the story of her field studies instructor, Robin Murray. Robin's role is traced through his learning experiences as a geography undergraduate at Aberdeen University, and the recent recollections of Catriona Murray, his wife.
Lorimer, H.2006Herding memories of humans and animalsEnvironment and Planning D-Society & Space24497-5180263-775810.1068/d381t://WOS:000241174500003; study of a herd marks the point where ethnography and ethology meet. In the midst of this shared phenomenon, versions of 'the social' hinge on relations between herders and herd. In this paper I consider how our understanding of a herd might be extended by an awareness of its diverse geographies. This is achieved by reconstructing the entwined biographies of human and animal subjects dating from the reintroduction of reindeer to Scotland in 1952. The first transportation of reindeer from Scandinavia to the Cairngorm mountains was orchestrated by Mikel Utsi, a Lappish emigre from northernmost Sweden, and Ethel John Lindgren, a social anthropologist from Cambridge, of American-Swedish descent. What began as an ecological-economic experiment would occupy the couple until their deaths: Utsi's in 1979 and Lindgren's in 1988. I draw on a 'make-do' methodology undertaken in collaboration with past herders and the scattered company of the present herd: walking a sentient topography of traditional grazing grounds; renewing encounters with charismatic animals through photographic portraits; consulting an archive of herding diaries; and mapping a hidden ecology of landscape relics. These different registers of memory are used to explore how day-to-day engagements between herders and herd were rooted in unconventional systems of ecological and cultural knowledge. By reanimating a local landscape, the resulting narrative works at an intimate scale, while simultaneously gathering momentum from transnational movements of humans, animals, and traditions. Here, salvage and exchange are possible between geography's heritage of landscape and folk study and the sculpting of contemporary research.
Luckman, B.H.1992Debris flows and snow avalanche landforms in the Lairig Ghru, Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandGeografiska Annaler Series a-Physical Geography74109-1210435-367610.2307/521289://WOS:A1992LE25400006Snow avalanche landforms are identified at 22 sites in the Lairig Ghru based on morphology and distinctive surface sediment sorting patterns. Avalanche boulder tongues intermediate between fan and roadbank tongues occur at the Pools of Dee and larger, inactive roadbank tongues are described from Glen Luibeg. Two major recent debris flow events are identified in the valley and dated to 1961 and 1978. Contemporary morphological activity by avalanches is mainly associated with the reworking of debris flow deposits. Levees from one of the 1961 flows were completely bevelled over a 20 year period. These observations indicate snow avalanches are locally significant geomorphic agents in the Scottish mountains although the morphological evidence may be masked by more obvious debris flow or alluvial cone deposits which originate from similar source areas.
Macdonald, N.J.; Walker, R.G.1969The epidemiology of accidents--a survey in AviemoreHealth bulletin2733-3703748014 (ISSN)
Mackay, D.G.1990Book review: Caring for the high mountains - conservation of the Cairngorms - Conroy JWHScottish Geographical Magazine106188-1890036-9225://WOS:A1990EQ32700014
MacLellan, L.R.; Strang, D.2004Sustainable tourism in Scotland's National Parks: the search for effective frameworks for planning, action and evaluationPineda, F.D.; Brebbia, C.A.Sustainable TourismSouthamptonWit Press9249-2601476-9581;1-85312-724-8://WOS:000223551500023The paper reviews the current situation facing the implementation of sustainable tourism in Scotland's recently constituted National Parks. It examines the background and unique characteristics of the national park model in Scotland and discusses alternative approaches to achieving sustainability through tourism. The paper argues that the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism provides a useful framework, in particular for The Caimgorms. The research is based on a combination of published literature, official reports and consultation with key National Park partners and interest groups. To reap the benefits of sustainable tourism development whilst ensuring that the natural and cultural heritage resources are enhanced and protected, the Cairngorms National Park Authority has sought an effective framework for planning, action and evaluation of sustainable tourism. It has sought to select a process that encompasses the many sustainable tourism initiatives and programmes that already exist in the area. As part of this process the park authority has established a private sector led Tourism Development Working Group that includes representatives from all key organisations with responsibility for tourism in the Cairngorms. The process of working towards Charter status raises several interesting issues, including sequencing, as it is hoped that the National Park Plan could be launched with the area having first achieved European Charter status.
MacMillan, D.C.; Marshall, K.2004Optimising capercailzie habitat in commercial forestry plantationsForest Ecology and Management198351-3650378-112710.1016/j.foreco.2004.05.027://WOS:000223410500025; Scottish capercailzie population has declined dramatically in the last 30 years from around 20,000 to just 1000. Forest management is likely to play an important role in any future recovery programme, and this paper describes the development and application of a 'decision-support tool' that allows forest managers to explore the trade-off between habitat provision for capercailzie and timber production. The model links a habitat suitability index with a timber inventory model and uses linear programming to identify short-term harvesting programmes that maximise habitat quality for capercailzie. Application to two case study forests in the Cairngorms suggests that substantial improvements in habitat quality can be achieved by heavier thinning, premature clear fell of unsuitable crops, and transformation of even aged stands through group selection. Within its acknowledged limitations, the model supplies viable management recommendations and potential exists for future development of this model into a practical desktop decision-support tool. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Macpherson, A.2017'Sensuous Singularity' Hamish Fulton's Cairngorm Walk-TextsCritical Survey2912-320011-157010.3167/cs.2017.290102://WOS:000404528600002; purpose of this article is to consider walking artist Hamish Fulton's 'walk-texts' as ethical responses to the environment. In light of the environmental crisis that manifests in the proposed stratigraphic designation 'Anthropocene', Jane Bennett's writing on enchantment offers a direction for thinking about how an ecologically ethical sensibility might be cultivated. Fulton's communicative response to his walking art, I argue, embodies the discernment of 'things in their sensuous singularity' that Bennett identifies as a key attribute of enchantment. Yet, in his own writing on his art practice, the walk-texts are conceived as secondary-a necessary counterpart to walking as an experiential activity. By honing in on two recurring strategies we find in Fulton's Cairngorm walk-texts-the list and the return-I argue that his work offers a linguistic mode that holds great potential for tuning us to environmental ethics in the Anthropocene.
Macrory, R.1992Environmental assessment and EC law: In the petition of the Kincardine and Deeside district councilJournal of Environmental Law4289-30409528873 (ISSN)10.1093/jel/4.2.289;;
Maizels, J.1988Sediment size and channel changes in braided and meandering gravel-bed streams, upper Deeside, ScotlandChichester, U.K., John Wiley & Sons Ltd0471919551 (ISBN); 9780471919551 (ISBN) project results aimed at developing a model of channel change linking large and small scale catchment, hydrologic, tests aimed to establish links between observed channel changes and local variation in sediment characteristics. Two contrasting streams were selected and compared. The course grained, braided reach, with extensive surface armouring, imbrication and clast clusters exhibited significantly less change than the finer-grained meandering reach. (from authors' abstract)
Malcolm, I.A., et al.2004The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon streamHydrology and Earth System Sciences8449-4591027-560610.5194/hess-8-449-2004://WOS:000225543000016; spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km(2) catchment), Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed oil assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget Studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more Subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics oil various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours) and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect oil freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular.
Malcolm, I.A., et al.2005Catchment-scale controls on groundwater-surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone: Implications for salmon embryo survivalRiver Research and Applications21977-9891535-145910.1002/rra.861://WOS:000233478700003; spatial and temporal variability of groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions in the hyporheic zone were investigated in a semi-pristine upland salmon spawning catchment (Girnock Burn) in the Cairngorm Mountains, northeast Scotland. Stream and hyporheic water quality (200-300 mm depth) were monitored fortnightly at 16 spawning locations distributed throughout the catchment. Hydrochemical tracers were used to assess local GW-SW interactions. Stratified streambed incubators (50-300 mm) provided information on salmon embryo mortality at a sub-set of ten locations. Hyporheic water quality varied both temporally and spatially according to local GW-SW interactions. It was possible to categorize sites into three broad typologies reflecting local stream-aquifer interactions: (1) groundwater-dominated; (2) surface water-dominated; and (3) sites exhibiting transient water table features. Groundwater upwelling occurred in areas where low permeability glacial moraine features caused substantive valley constriction. These locations were also conducive to accumulation of spawning grade gravels and consequently were utilized heavily by spawning salmon. Long residence groundwater was typically characterized by low dissolved oxygen (DO), of sufficiently low quality to be detrimental to salmon embryo survival. At sites dominated by surface water, hyporheic DO remained high throughout and rates of embryo survival were correspondingly high. Survival rates were also high at sites where hydrochemical characteristics indicated a transient water table. This is probably attributable to the hydrological conditions which resulted in increasing DO concentrations towards hatch time when embryo oxygen demand is at its maximum. The degree to which the findings of this study are directly applicable to other catchments is currently unknown. However, similar effects have been observed elsewhere, and based on the information presented here, there are clear implications for fisheries managers who may wish to consider the use of surface incubation facilities to negate the effects of low DO groundwater upwelling where it dominates available spawning habitat. It is suggested that future research should aim to integrate across spatial scales and disciplines to obtain a better understanding of the ways in which hillslope and riparian zone hydrology affect GW-SW interactions, hyporheic zone processes and stream ecology. (c) Crown copyright 2005. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mancini, F.; Coghill, G.M.; Lusseau, D.2018Using social media to quantify spatial and temporal dynamics of nature-based recreational activitiesPlos One13191932-620310.1371/journal.pone.0200565://WOS:000438829800030; data offer a great opportunity for nature-based recreation (NbR) mapping and evaluation. However, it is important to determine when and how it is appropriate to use this resource. We used Scotland as a case study to validate the use of data from Flickr as an indicator of NbR on a national scale and at several regional spatial and temporal resolutions. We compared Flickr photographs to visitor statistics in the Cairngorms National Park (CNP) and determined whether temporal variability in photo counts could be explained by known annual estimates of CNP visitor numbers. We then used a unique recent national survey of nature recreation in Scotland to determine whether the spatial distribution of Flickr photos could be explained by known spatial variability in nature use. Following this validation work, we used Flickr data to identify hotspots of wildlife watching in Scotland and investigated how they changed between 2005 and 2015. We found that spatial and temporal patterns in Flickr count are explained by measures of visitation obtained through surveys and that this relationship is reliable down to a 10 Km scale resolution. Our findings have implications for planning and management of NbR as they suggest that photographs uploaded on Flickr reflect patterns of NbR at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for ecosystem management.
Manley, G.1978Meteorological observations on Royal DeesideWeather33457-45900431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1978.tb05326.x;
Marquiss, M.; Rae, R.1994Seasonal trends in abundance, diet and breeding of common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) in an area of mixed species conifer plantation following the 1990 crossbill 'irruption'Forestry6731-470015752X (ISSN)10.1093/forestry/67.1.31;;; Crossbills increased in abundance on lower Deeside, north-east Scotland, from July 1990 through the autumn, remaining numerous until the following June. Flock size initially increased, but decreased towards late winter as breeding began. The timing of the population increase, and the sizes of the birds' bills suggested they were mainly immigrant Loxia curvirostra. Their diet changed seasonally in a pattern that could be explained by the seed weight, cone toughness and seedfall phenology of the predominant conifers present. No breeding was recorded in autumn and winter when the birds were mainly feeding on Sitka spruce, but commenced in early spring as they shifted to Scots pine. Breeding was late, and production poor, probably because only some of the birds had large enough bills to feed efficiently from the robust cones of Scots pine. It is argued that plantation forestry, by providing a novel range of conifer seeds, could affect selection for bill size in British crossbill populations. (C) 1994 Oxford University Press.
Marquiss, M.; Rae, R.2002Ecological differentiation in relation to bill size amongst sympatric, genetically undifferentiated crossbills Loxia sppIbis144494-5080019-101910.1046/j.1474-919X.2002.00041.x://WOS:000176323200016; evidence of genetic homogeneity across morphologically diverse crossbill taxa Loxia spp. suggests that strong directional natural selection sustains morphological differences. If so, we would expect that, in sympatry, persistent crossbill morphs will be associated with the ecological circumstances that select for particular features. Here we report on a field study of niche differentiation in sympatric crossbills, showing correlation between bill size and habitat use, foraging and movements. In Deeside, north-east Scotland, crossbills occupied three ecological niches. Small-billed birds L. curvirostra were itinerant and migratory. They switched between conifer species in relation to the phenology of cone ripeness, feeding on spruce or larch from summer through winter and Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris in spring and early summer. Large-billed birds L. pytyopsittacus were more sedentary, feeding on pine seed year round in semi-natural pine forest. Birds with intermediate bills L. scotica were also sedentary but switched seasonally between conifer species. Deeside crossbills thus occupied three niches in line with the current designation of three species, but in the study years (1990-1997) there was no shortage of conifer seed and no evidence of strong selection for optimal bill size. Bill sizes did not fall precisely into three distinct modes so other factors were involved. These could have included the immigration of two sizes of L. curvirostra , and introgression (and possibly phenotypic plasticity) amongst the more sedentary larger-billed birds. The origin of L. scotica is discussed within the context of novel habitat, introgression, niche shift and competition for pine seed.
Marshall, A.; Simpson, L.2009Population sustainability in rural communities: The case of two British National ParksApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy2107-1271874463X (ISSN)10.1007/s12061-008-9017-1;; paper uses projections of population and housing to explore issues of population sustainability in the Cairngorms and Peak District National Parks. The projections demonstrate that if recent trends of births, deaths and migration continue both National Parks will not be sustainable as the younger profile of out-migration relative to in-migration causes populations to become increasingly elderly. Whilst these processes of demographic change are common to many rural areas we demonstrate that the effects of migration and associated population ageing are more extreme within the National Parks than in surrounding areas. Further projection scenarios show that the number of new houses required to prevent the decline in the working age population is politically unfeasible. Policies that aim to change the migration age pattern and to cater for the needs of the elderly population are essential if the sustainability and vibrancy of local communities are to be maintained. (C) Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.
Mason, W.L., et al.2007Spatial structure of semi-natural and plantation stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern ScotlandForestry80564-5830015-752X10.1093/forestry/cpm038://WOS:000253319800006; success of current initiatives to maintain and enhance the area of and the special habitats provided by the remnant semi-natural pinewoods of northern Scotland will depend upon foresters' ability to foster more natural structures in even-aged plantations through stand manipulation. However, there is little information on the structures and spatial patterns that can be found in Scottish pinewoods; such knowledge could be used to design appropriate silvicultural regimes. A study was carried out to compare spatial structure in three 0.8-1.0 ha plots in the Cairngorms National Park; one plot was a 78-year-old plantation stand, the other two were semi-natural stands with trees up to 300 years old. Basic mensurational data showed that the semi-natural stands were characterized by a wider range of tree sizes and more large (> 50 cm d.b.h.) trees. Spatial structure was evaluated with a range of different indices: the aggregation index of Clark-Evans (CE), the uniform angle and diameter differentiation indices, Ripley's L function of tree spatial distribution, pair and mark correlation functions and experimental variograms of tree diameter. The CE revealed a regular distribution in the plantation with the semi-natural stands having a random pattern. Further analysis of the latter stands indicated that, in each case, the older trees in the stand were regularly distributed while the younger ones were clustered. There was little difference in uniform angle values between the stands while the diameter differentiation distributions suggested greater variety in diameter within the semi-natural stands than in the plantation. The Ripley's L function showed that trees in the plantation were regularly distributed at close distances but clustered over wider distances. There were differences in pattern between the semi-natural stands; in one, trees were clustered because the positions of the younger trees were influenced by past regeneration trials, whereas in the other stand a random pattern was observed. Similarly, the variogram indicated widespread homogeneity in diameter within the plantation, while the semi-natural stands showed high variation at close spacing because of competition followed by spatial autocorrelation up to similar to 20 m distance. Thereafter, one of these stands had a very different pattern because of a more intensive regeneration history. All the indices, apart from uniform angle, were able to discriminate between the plantation and the two semi-natural stands, but only the more detailed spatial indices were capable of identifying differences within the latter. The implications of these results for management strategies in plantations are discussed.
McCay, A.T.; Younger, P.L.2017Ranking the geothermal potential of radiothermal granites in Scotland: are any others as hot as the Cairngorms?Scottish Journal of Geology531-110036-927610.1144/sjg2016-008://WOS:000407990800001Prior investigations concur that the granite plutons in Scotland which are most likely to prove favourable for geothermal exploration are the Ballater, Bennachie, Cairngorm and Mount Battock plutons, all of which have heat production values greater than 5 mu W m(-3). This heat production arises from the significant concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium in some granite plutons. A new field-based gamma-ray spectrometric survey targeted plutons that were poorly surveyed in the past or near areas of high heat demand. This survey identifies several other plutons (Ben Rhinnes, Cheviot, Hill of Fare, Lochnagar and Monadhliath) with heat production rates between 3 and 5 mu W m(-3) that could well have geothermal gradients sufficient for direct heat use rather than higher temperatures required for electricity generation. The Criffel and Cheviot plutons are examples of Scottish granites that have concentric compositional zonation and some zones have significantly higher (up to 20%) heat production rates than others in the same plutons. However, the relatively small surface areas of individual high heat-production zones mean that it is unlikely to be worthwhile specifically targeting them.
McClatchey, J.1993Wind profiles above an ablating snowpatchWiley chapter examines the influence of near-surface atmospheric stability and a change of roughness on the wind speed profile above an ablating snowpatch. This work is part of a wider investigation of the energy balance of an ablating snowpatch in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. The results show that the substantial change of surface from a corrie floor with a roughness length of in excess of 0.3m to a snowpatch with one of 0.01m has a substantial effect on the near-surface wind speed profile. A distinct break or 'kink' in the profile is apparent at a short distance above the snow. This profile is further affected by the large increase in near-surface atmospheric stability which occurs as air moves across the snow. The results have implications for any investigation involving the study of the near-surface turbulent wind speed profiles in situations where roughness varies within short distances. Also highlighted is the need for investigators to be aware that profiles are affected by changes in near-surface atmospheric stability which can occur as air moves across one surface to another. (Author)
McDonald, A.T.; Chapman, P.J.; Fukasawa, K.2008The microbial status of natural waters in a protected wilderness areaJournal of Environmental Management87600-6080301-479710.1016/j.jenvman.2007.10.007://WOS:000256358500008; derived from remote 'wilderness' locations have been assumed to be largely free of bacterial contamination and thus such, near-pristine, protected catchments, unused for agriculture, have been first in the multiple line of protection (pristine catchment-long storage-treatment-disinfection) employed by the water industry. This assumption is challenged by a bacterial survey of the waters derived from the New Cairngorm National Park, Scotland. Over 480 spot samples were taken for 59 sites between March 2001 and October 2002 during nine field campaigns each of three to five days duration. Over 75% of samples tested positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 85% for total coliforms. Concentrations displayed both temporal and spatial patterns. Largest values occurred over the summer months and particularly at weekends at sites frequented by visitors, either for 'wild' camping or day visits, or where water was drawn from the river for drinking. Overall the spatial and temporal variations in bacterial concentrations suggest a relationship with visitor numbers and in particular wild camping. The implications of the results for drinking water quality and visitors health are discussed along with possible management options for the area in terms of improving the disposal of human waste. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McEwen, L.J.1987The use of long-term rainfall records for augmenting historic flood series: A case study on the upper Dee, Aberdeenshire, ScotlandTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences78275-28502635933 (ISSN)10.1017/s0263593300011214; the magnitude and frequency of floods within upland catchments on the basis of short-term gauged runoff records is crucially dependent upon the extent to which the record is truly representative. In the case of the River Dee, upstream of Crathie in Aberdeenshire, gauged discharge records are limited in length. Although the middle Dee has been gauged since 1929, the gauge within the upper catchment has only ten years of record. Thus, reliable estimates of the return intervals of extreme floods for this part of the Dee can only be obtained by using a variety of historical sources to extend the flood series. Long-term rainfall records, where available, provide a valuable independent check on the reconstructed flood series. Such rainfall records, when analysed in terms of the magnitude, frequency and duration of major events, should, in general terms, correspond with the flood series. In this paper, the recurrence interval of extreme rainfalls of varying magnitude and duration in upper Deeside is estimated by extreme value analysis of the annual maximum series. The frequency of rainfall events above varying thresholds is also assessed. The existence of climatic fluctuations giving highly variable recurrence intervals for rainfall events of the same magnitude is demonstrated. Finally, the seasonality of frequent flood-producing storms is analysed. Patterns observed within the rainfall record are compared with those previously established within the historic flood series to substantiate and augment the flood record. (C) 1987, Royal Society of Edinburgh. All rights reserved.
McEwen, L.J.; Werritty, A.1988The hydrology and long-term geomorphic significance of a flash flood in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandCatena15361-37703418162 (ISSN)10.1016/0341-8162(88)90057-4; the 4th August 1978, a major flash flood occurred on the Allt Mor, a mountain torrent within the Cairngorm massif, Scotland. This paper assesses the flood's immediate geomorphic impact as well as its longer term geomorphic significance in terms of slope and valley-floor development. The hydrometeorological characteristics of the flood are reconstructed and placed in the context of the catchment's flood hisotory. In magnitudefrequency terms, the dominant geomorphic processes in this environment are floods which occur several times a century. The specific response of the Allt Mor to such floods varies spatially across the catchment; the major impact being recorded in the entrenched and channel reaches. Also significant are the sequence and inter-arrival times of floods of differing magnitudes, the high thresholds for channel and slope adjustment, and the nature of the coupling between slope and channel systems. The results confirm and strengthen the findings reported from other sites in upland Britain. (C) 1988.
McGrane, S.J.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.2014Influence of lowland aquifers and anthropogenic impacts on the isotope hydrology of contrasting mesoscale catchmentsHydrological Processes28793-8080885-608710.1002/hyp.9610://WOS:000329352400033; examined the isotope hydrology of eight, contrasting mesoscale (104-488km(2)) catchments characterized by a systematic change in the relative importance of upland and lowland areas that reflects the relative distribution of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Precipitation and stream water were monitored over a 12-month period, and stable isotopes were used to examine spatial variations in the hydrometric and tracer dynamics of the catchments. Isotopic tracers were used to examine the temporal dynamics of different runoff sources, and geochemical tracers (alkalinity) were used to identify the geographic sources of runoff. Input-output relationships of isotopic tracers were explored using a gamma function to fit a transit time distribution, which was used to test the hypothesis that the length of mean transit times increased systematically with the cover of sandstone aquifers in the catchments. However, in three catchments, the increased influence of anthropogenic factors, notably reservoir storage, urban runoff and agricultural abstraction for irrigation, prevented reliable transit time estimation. For sites where tentative mean transit time estimates were possible, these varied from around 1.6years in upland catchments dominated by metamorphic rocks (>75%) and responsive soils to around 4years in catchments with 34% sandstone cover and freely draining soils. These preliminary results were consistent with inferences of geochemical tracers on the increased role of sedimentary aquifers as runoff sources in lowland areas, but observation from a larger number of sites is needed to confirm this. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McKilligan, N.G.1980The winter exodus of the rook from a Scottish Highland valleyBird Study2793-10000063657 (ISSN)10.1080/00063658009476663; Rooks and Jackdaws left upper Deeside in autumn, when they fed and roosted up to 45 km away in lower Deeside, they made regular diurnal visits (round trips of 90 km) to their breeding areas in the second half of the winter when weather conditions had worsened. Likely reasons for this behaviour are discussed. (C) 1980 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
McManus, J.2001Solid geology of the Aviemore District. Memoir for the 1 : 50,000 geological sheet 74E (Scotland)Scottish Geographical Journal11773-740036-9225://WOS:000172318500014
McVean, D.N.1962Cladonia elongata (jacq.) hoffm. in the cairngormsThe Lichenologist294-9600242829 (ISSN)10.1017/s0024282962000092;
McVean, D.N.1963Snow cover in the Cairngorms 1961-62Weather18339-34200431656 (ISSN)10.1002/j.1477-8696.1963.tb02692.x;
Metcalfe, G.1950The ecology of the Cairngorms. 2. The mountain CallunetumJournal of Ecology3846-&0022-047710.2307/2256525://WOS:A1950YD50900004;
Milford, C., et al.2001Fluxes of NH3 and CO2 over upland moorland in the vicinity of agricultural landJournal of Geophysical Research AtmospheresBlackwell Publishing Ltd10624169-2418101480227 (ISSN)10.1029/2001jd900082; field measurements of NH3 and CO2 exchange were made over a wet heathland in the vicinity (<500 m) of sheep pastures in the Cairngorm mountains of Scotland for a two-week period in the summer. Fluxes of NH3 were determined using the aerodynamic gradient method with a 3-height continuous denuder system; fluxes of CO2 were determined using eddy correlation, while sensible and latent heat fluxes were determined by both methods. Few studies have measured NH3 and CO2 fluxes simultaneously, making these measurements relevant to compare exchange dynamics. Both NH3 and CO2 exchanged bidirectionally, in response to a combination of biological (foliar, soil) and physico-chemical controls (solubility). NH3 was deposited rapidly to leaf surfaces, although during warm, dry daytime conditions periods of emission occurred, explained by the existence of a compensation point concentration for NH3. By contrast, CO2 followed a characteristic pattern of absorption during the day associated with net photosynthesis and emission at night. Both gases showed net uptake from the atmosphere, at 30 μmol NH3 m-2 d-1 and 74 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. In southeast winds, NH3 emissions from the sheep pasture caused a significant advection error to the measured fluxes (>10%). Corrections were applied using a local-scale dispersion-exchange model. The analysis highlights how advection modifies the classical one-dimensional inferential resistance approach. It is concluded that ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural land receive more dry deposition than would be estimated using NH3 concentration monitoring and standard inferential models. In the present study, this effect represented an overall increase in total NH3 deposition of 32%. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.
Miller, D.2001Spatial modelling of the visibility of land useHalls, P.J.Spatial Information and the EnvironmentLondonTaylor & Francis Ltd8213-2270-415-25362-4://WOS:000180452800014The integrated management of land use requires change in land cover to be managed with regard to its ecological, economic and landscape functionality. An inventory of resources that includes the contribution made by land cover to the visual landscape can be used in the monitoring of the implications of change in land cover on the visual landscape capital of an area. A method is presented for assessing the visual resources of the landscape, as applied to the western part of the prospective Cairngorm National Park in Scotland, including an illustration of the changes in diversity of view content and the change in and the area from which woodland is visible along a chosen route. The results show a reduction in the overall contribution of scattered, natural woodland to the visual landscape, and an increase in the visual contribution of plantation woodland. The limitations of the method are discussed, and where there is potential for providing a spatial context for expressing the results of landscape preference modelling.
Miller, D.2001A method for estimating changes in the visibility of land coverLandscape and Urban Planning5491-1040169-2046://WOS:000169616600008An inventory of resources that includes the contribution made by land cover to the visual landscape can be used in monitoring and assessing the impacts of change in land cover on the visual landscape of an area. A method is presented for assessing the visual resources of the landscape as applied to a case study area in the western part of the proposed Cairngorm National Park in Scotland. The method is based upon measuring the extent of the land from which different land cover types may be visible, on a cell-by-cell basis, using high resolution Digital Elevation Models combined with interpreted land cover data as inputs. The results show a reduction in the overall contribution of scattered, natural woodland to the visual landscape, and an increase in the visual contribution of plantation woodland at the expense of heather moorland. The geographical distribution of the changes in visibility of land cover types is shown and the potential of the method for providing a spatial context for expressing the results of landscape preference modelling is discussed. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Miller, D.; Morrice, J.; Whitworth, P.1990Environmental assessments using digital spatial dataBibby, J.S.; Thomas, M.F.Evaluation of land resources in Scotland. Proc. RSGS symposium, Stirling, 1989Macaulay Land Use Research Institute97-100 introduced in 1988 requires environmental assessments to provide relevant information using a systematic approach. An example is presented to illustrate the applicability of analysis of spatial data in a digital form as a basis for assessing impacts on the visual environment and on water quality, relating to forestry. A measure of zoning land by its visibility to tourists is described, and the results presented for the Aviemore area. Computer simulation of scene content and visual impacts on an observer location are illustrated. Analysis of terrain and forestry data suggested a relationship between proximity to exposed forest edges and the potential for concentrating dry deposition of air pollutants. These examples are intended to demonstrate some of the advantages of flexibility and repeatibility only offered within a digital data environment. -Authors
Miller, D.R.; Aspinall, R.J.; Morrice, J.G.1992Recreation potential and management in the Cairngorms: use of GIS for analysis of landscape in an area of high scenic valueCadoux-Hudson, J.; Heywood, D.I.Geographic information 1992/3. Yearbook of the AGITaylor & Francis82-92 chapter describes the use of GIS for analysis of scenery in Badenoch and Strathspey District. This is an area of recognized landscape importance and where there are significant land management issues associated with recreational activity, tourism, and land use changes. We present three methods of characterizing visual quality of scenery in an area and their use for assessing impact of land cover change. We also identify some applications of these approaches for integrating recreation and tourism into land management planning. The land use considered is forestry which produces a land cover of high scenic impact. -Authors
Miller, G.R.; Cummins, R.P.1982Regeneration of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris at a natural tree-line in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandEcography527-340906-7590;1600-058710.1111/j.1600-0587.1982.tb01014.x; age, density, distribution and reproductive capacity of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. were investigated along an altitudinal gradient through the only undisturbed tree‐line remaining in the Cairngorm Mountains. Saplings at 300–410 m a.s.l. were unlikely to develop to reproductive maturity because of repeated browsing by red deer Cervus elaphus L. By contrast, pines were regenerating successfully in scrub at 531–590 m, where the population included individuals of all ages up to 300 yr. Above 590 m, there grew only saplings aged less than 30 yr and these declined in density with increasing altitude up to 730 m. The climate at 531–590 m was not so severe as to prevent pines from growing to reproductive maturity. However, it may have been severe enough to restrict the activities of large herbivores and so the pine saplings there escaped the heavy browsing suffered by plants at lower altitude. Presumably zones of successfully regenerating pine scrub might occur more widely in the Cairngorms but for a shortage of seed‐bearing trees. Copyright (C) 1982, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Miller, G.R.; Cummins, R.P.1987Role of buried viable seeds in the recolonization of disturbed ground by the heather (Calluna vulgaris [L.] Hull) in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, UKArctic & Alpine Research19396-401, the predominant species on great tracts of Scottish moorland over a wide altitudinal range, flowers annually but seed production is variable and declines substantially with increasing altitude. Heather seeds can, however, accumulate in the soil in huge numbers, up to nearly 100 000 seeds m-2. Seed longevity is much greater at high altitude than it is at lower altitude, so the densities of buried germinable seeds do not decrease as steeply with increasing altitude as do the densities of the seeds shed annually. Above the forest limit buried seeds become the more important, and in some years the only, source of heather propagules for colonizing disturbed ground. Initial establishment from buried seeds is generally successful but first winter mortality can be particularly severe at high altitude. The store of buried seeds may help to remedy these losses. Buried seeds probably contribute to heather's dominance of vegetation over a wide range of environmental conditions and its persistence in marginal habitats. A reservoir of buried viable seeds may take many years to accumulate, especially at high altitude. It is a valuable resource which is liable to destruction by human disturbance. -from Authors
Miller, G.R.; Cummins, R.P.2003Soil seed banks of woodland, heathland, grassland, mire and montane communities, Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandPlant Ecology168255-2661385-023710.1023/a:1024464028195://WOS:000183836200005; size and species composition of soil seed banks were assessed at 111 altitudinally diverse sites in the Cairngorm Mountains. Mean densities of germinable seeds varied from 83 000 m(-2) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) woodland at 230 - 490 m to 200 m(-2) in moss (Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.) heath at 1000 - 1120 m. Seed banks were dominated by Calluna vulgaris ( L.) Hull, not only wherever it was prominent in the vegetation, but also at some sites with less than 5% cover of parent plants in the ground vegetation. Many species conspicuous in the vegetation were under-represented in or absent from the seed bank and surface vegetation generally was more species rich than was the underlying seed bank, especially in high montane communities. Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between the density of buried Calluna seeds and the abundance of parent plants in the vegetation, site altitude and the organic matter content of the soil. The model fitted to woodland communities accounted for 95% of the variation in seed density. The heathland model was less predictive but still explained 52% of the variation in seed bank size. In mire communities there was no relationship, collective or individual, between buried seed density and the measured environmental variables, possibly due to variations in the duration and frequency of waterlogging at these sites. The potential role of seed banks for initiating the recolonisation of disturbed ground is discussed. Densities of buried seeds at most Calluna-dominant sites were probably sufficient to generate successful recolonisation but the prospects for recovery were poor at other sites, particularly in graminaceous communities at 800 m or higher.
Miller, H.G.; Cooper, J.M.1976Tree growth and climatic cycles in the rain shadow of the Grampian mountainsNature260697-69800280836 (ISSN)10.1038/260697a0; widths have been widely studied as a guide to historical meteorology1,2, the assumption being that fluctuations superimposed on the smooth progression of change with age are climate induced. Several authors3,4 have even identified cyclical patterns in tree growth, some of which they have tentatively linked to sunspot activity, but generally the precise climatic parameter that may be operating remains unspecified. In Scandinavia, ring widths seem to fluctuate with summer temperature 5,6, although precipitation during early summer may also be influential7. In Scotland, on the other hand, Schove and Frewer 8 were unable to relate any meteorological character to the growth pattern of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Speyside. Here we report, however, that examination of the results from two long term fertiliser experiments in mature Scots pine at Alltcailleach forest (National Grid Reference NO 3596), on upper Deeside, has shown that growth exhibits several regular oscillations each of which can be related to a particular climatic cycle. Furthermore, it would seem that some of these climatic cycles may be limited to low rainfall areas, such as the rain shadow of the Grampian mountains. (C) 1975 Nature Publishing Group.
Milne, R.1989Ski slopes threaten Cairngorm wildlife reserveNew Scientist12425-250262-4079://WOS:A1989AY34500003
Milner, V.S., et al.2015Linkages between reach-scale physical habitat and invertebrate assemblages in upland streamsMarine and Freshwater Research66438-4481323-165010.1071/mf14008://WOS:000353898600006; the influence of physical habitat on biological structure in minimally disturbed settings is important if the effects of alterations to physical habitat are to be understood. This study tested whether reach-scale differences in physical habitat influence macroinvertebrate community composition at 24 sites in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Stream reaches were classified into channel types based on a geomorphic typology (i.e. step-pool, bedrock, plane-bed and pool-riffle). PERMANOVA indicated an overall significant relationship between the geomorphic typology and macroinvertebrate species-level composition, and among all combinations of channel types (such as step-pool and pool-riffle, step-pool and bedrock). Most channel types were dominated by high abundances of Baetis rhodani, Rhithrogena semicolorata and Leuctra inermis, which are ubiquitous in unpolluted gravel-bedded Scottish streams. However, reflecting significant differences in abundance of commoner taxa between types, indicator value (IndVal) analysis revealed that pool-riffle reaches were characterised by elmids (Limnius sp. and Oulimnius sp.) and Caenis rivulorum, and step-pool reaches by Alainites muticus, B. rhodani, L. inermis and Brachyptera risi. Geomorphic typing of rivers provides a useful basis for the initial assessment of ecological status whereas abundance-based biological data processed at the appropriate taxonomic resolution should be sensitive to physical-habitat modifications.
Mitchell, B.; McCowan, D.; Parish, T.1986Performance and population dynamics in relation to management of red deer Cervus elaphus at Glenfeshie, inverness-shire, ScotlandBiological Conservation37237-26700063207 (ISSN)10.1016/0006-3207(86)90084-4; of Britain's red deer live at high density on some of Britain' least fertile land, i.e. poor hill-land in Scotland, which has lost most of its original woodland. For well over a century, deer have been actively conserved on such land, on privately owned estates known as 'deer-forests', devoted mainly to deer-stalking (i.e. stag hunting with a rifle), but with venison output also becoming important latterly. This land is both atypical and suboptimal as red deer habitat, and these deer are markedly poorer in performance than those in their more usual woodland habitats elsewhere. For information relevant to improved harvesting, red deer were studied over a 9-year period at Glendeshie, a 16 600 ha deer-forest in the Cairngorms. Here the population density was 30% higher than average for Scottish hill-land, and deer performance was comparable with other high-density populations in Scotland. Early growth was slow, and puberty in hinds relatively late. Whereas some hinds in low-density populations can be sexually mature as yearlinhs (1 1 2-year-olds), no pregnant yearlings or lactating 2-year-olds occurred at Glenfeshie. Each year, about 34% of the adult hinds failed to breed, giving rise to the high frequency of 'yeld' adult hinds which typify populations in this type of habitat. The birthrate of about 44 calves per 100 hinds was probably a little lower than average for Scottish hill-land, but much lower than in the best red deer habitats where all hinds are mature as yearlings and able to breed every year thereafter. Apart from losses of calves soon after birth, most natural mortality was in late winter and early spring, but the incidence was quite low over the study period due to unusually mild winters. The main causes seemed to be under-nutrition and exposure which affected individuals already in poor condition, i.e. stunted youngsters and adults past their best years. It was estimated that the population could sustain an annual crop of about 15% of the adult stock, this being about twice the traditional level. Although carcase-meat production (about 1 kg ha-1 year-1) would be still low by agricultural standards, such land would otherwise be difficult to exploit, and other income arises from leasing out stalking. However, the actual cropping-rate would have to be reviewed periodically; it would be impossible to anticipate the effects of severe winters or of neighbouring management changes. Therefore, much depends on regular stock assessment, and since individual deer-forests seldom contain discrete deer populations, efficient management must also depend on co-operation among those exploiting a common stock. (C) 1986.
Moir, A.K.; Leroy, S.A.G.; Helama, S.2011Role of substrate on the dendroclimatic response of Scots pine from varying elevations in northern ScotlandCanadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere41822-8380045-506710.1139/x10-241://WOS:000291185700015; influence of substrate was evaluated by comparing annual ring widths of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with climate data at 13 new sites (five bog, three peat, and five soil), together with 17 previously studied soil sites in northern Scotland. Radial growth rates <1.0 and >1.5 mm.year(-1) differentiate well between pine growing on bog and peat, respectively, highlighting the role of pine as a indicator of water levels in these environments. Scots pine chronologies from bog are shown to have a weak temperature growth response and so limit potential in dendroclimatic reconstructions. However, correlation analysis shows temperature in January February and July August to be important determinants of the radial growth of Scots pine on soil. Moving correlation analysis indicates that the relationship between the radial growth of pine on soil near the altitudinal tree line and summer temperature (July August) is time stable, despite an increase of temperature in northern Scotland. However, winter (January February) temperature has become less limiting since the 1920s. Scots pine at some soil, bog, and peat sites have increased or developed correlation with October temperature since the 1940s, suggesting an extension of the growth season, particularly on the western coast of Scotland.
Moreau, N.2015Hearts and minds - Stakeholder management in the CairngormsEcosBritish Association of Nature Conservationists3657-6501439073 (ISSN) can emerge from collaborative management processes. This story focuses on CRAGG - an informal partnership of community members and stakeholders in Scotland's Cairngorms. CRAGG's collaborative process helped reduce decades of environmental conflict and create a balanced land management approach in its area.
Morgan, W.C.1967Genthelvite and Bertrandite from Cairngorm mountains ScotlandMineralogical Magazine and Journal of the Mineralogical Society3660-&10.1180/minmag.1967.036.277.08://WOS:A19679392700019;
Morris, E.M.1986Modelling a seasonal snow coverKukla, G.Snow watch '85. Proc. workshop, 1985, College Park, MDWorld Data Center A for Glaciology (Snow & Ice225-240 physics-based, distributed models for snow processes and their potential use in assessing the effects of climatic change produced by increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The conservation and constitutive equations for snow treated as a three phase, four component mixture are described and the simplifications made in the various current distributed models explained. One particular model, the SHE snow component, is used to estimate the sensitivity of predictions of snowmelt rate to variations in meteorological inputs using field data from a site in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. This analysis indicates that, for the expected levels of climatic variation, the change in predicted snowmelt rates is of the same order as the uncertainty in these rates arising from uncertainty in one of the parameters of the model, the aerodynamic roughness length. However, field data suggests that it may well be possible to specify this parameter more precisely. -from Author
Morris, E.M.1986Modelling Preferential Elution of Pollutants During SnowmeltProceedings of the International Conference on Water Quality Modelling in the Inland Natural Environment, Bournemouth, England, 10–13 June, 1986.BHRA,Cranfield, England paper describes the preferential elution of pollutants from snow at the onset of snowmelt and the pollution surges produced by this process in snowmelt fed streams. Modelling techniques are discussed. Examples are given from a small upland catchment in the Cairngorm mountains of Scotland.
Morris, E.M.; Thomas, A.G.1987Transient acid surges in an upland streamWater, Air, and Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers34429-43800496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00282743; paper examines the hydrological and chemical processes controlling transient acid surges in a small, upland catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. The major episodes of increased acidity are produced by preferential elution of pollutants from snow at the onset of melt and by heavy autumn rainstorms when the catchment is saturated or frozen. Records of flow and water quality over a 3 yr period have been used to calibrate a lumped conceptual hydrochemical model. Using this model it is shown that concentration and distribution of input pollution by hydrological processes is the major control on episodic variations of stream water quality in this catchment. (C) 1987 D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Morrocco, S.M., et al.2016Assessment of terrain sensitivity on high plateaux: a novel approach based on vegetation and substrate characteristics in the Scottish HighlandsPlant Ecology & Diversity9219-2351755-087410.1080/17550874.2015.1092610://WOS:000384307500010; High plateaux in the Scottish Highlands are vulnerable to disturbance and erosion, but there is a lack of quantitative measurements of terrain sensitivity. Aims: To apply new quantitative methods to assess the sensitivity of such terrain to physical stress. Methods: We investigated two components of the mechanical properties of the terrain on 10 plateaux underlain by several different lithologies: the tensile strength of the vegetation mat and underlying root zone, and the shear and compressional strengths of the substrate. Results: Significant differences in tensile strength occur amongst plant communities, but there is also large within-site and between-site variation for particular communities. A significant component of such variability is attributable to the proportional representation of co-dominant species within communities, and inter-site variability is partly explained by substrate granulometry: particular communities exhibit lower strength characteristics when rooted in sandy substrates derived from coarse-grained lithologies than the same communities on silt-rich soils derived from fine-grained lithologies. Conclusions: Terrain sensitivity to physical stress is conditioned by the interaction of vegetation and substrate characteristics. Generally, grass-dominated (particularly Nardus-dominated) communities tend to be most robust, and communities dominated by bryophytes and prostrate Calluna vulgaris are typically most sensitive. We identify a continuum of substrate strength: peat is the most sensitive substrate type, followed by other organic-rich soils, sandy matrix-supported substrates and silt-rich matrix-supported substrates. Clast-supported substrates and openwork blockfields are the most robust substrate types. Because the near-surface layers of mineral substrates are weakest, erosion is likely to remove these to expose the underlying robust but sterile clast-supported layers, altering soil status and inhibiting plant recolonisation on eroded substrates.
Naden, P.S.; Watts, C.D.2001Estimating climate-induced change in soil moisture at the landscape scale: An application to five areas of ecological interest in the UKClimatic Change49411-4400165-000910.1023/a:1010684017389://WOS:000168331900004; paper presents an indication of the possible effects of climate change on monthly mean soil moisture at a fine spatial resolution (50 m) over the scale of a landscape (100-250 km(2)). Soil moisture is modelled using daily time series of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration to drive a simple hydrological model operating on individual hillslopes and explicitly including, on a conceptual level, the lateral movement of water. Climate change is represented by the UKTR scenario and model results are provided at two time slices (the years 2030-2040 and 2060-2070) for five areas of ecological interest, forming a north-south transect across the U.K. The results are given in terms of the distribution of the monthly mean soil moisture change by soil type. The spread of values reflects the effect of the topographic control on the lateral movement of water. The results show a small increase in wetness at the Cairngorm site, a very slight decrease in summer soil moisture at the Moor House site and a very marked fall in soil moisture for the three more southerly sites. The importance of soil type in determining the availability of water to plants, the changing areal extent above specified soil moisture thresholds, and the implications for ecological change and conservation are discussed.
Nagy, J., et al.2013The stability of the Pinus sylvestris treeline in the Cairngorms, Scotland over the last millenniumPlant Ecology & Diversity67-191755-087410.1080/17550874.2013.770933://WOS:000317739000003; : Changes in climate and recent land use have been related to treeline advances in many alpine and arctic regions. Short-term (<50 years) observations on treeline dynamics are available for many parts of the world; we present here millennium-scale data for a Pinus sylvestris treeline in the Cairngorms, Scotland, where a natural treeline at ca. 650m is thought to exist at Creag Fhiaclach. Aim : We demonstrate that treeline position can be determined from an altitudinal sequence of quotients of treeline tree pollen and dwarf-shrub pollen and therefore past treeline dynamics can be deduced from quotients of the same pollen types determined from dated peat strata. Methods : Modern pollen was extracted from moss cushions and replicate peat cores were taken for pollen analysis at each of six elevations, from below the treeline at 606m to about 100m above the treeline at 758 m. Ratios of Pinus sylvestris to Calluna vulgaris pollen were calculated after complete pollen analysis of each of the cores and radiocarbon dating. Results : In the modern pollen most palynomorphs (96%) were either of Pinus or Calluna. The pollen analysis extracted and identified 26 palynomorphs from peat. The ratios of Pinus/(Pinus+Calluna) pollen in the sampled elevation belts suggested a relative stability of today's treeline for about the last 1000 years. Conclusions : The observed stability of treeline elevation is likely to have been caused by site conditions and land-use history (windiness, fire and grazing) that overruled a simple climateelevation relationship.
Oldfield, F., et al.2010Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to late Holocene climate change recorded in the sediments of Lochan Uaine, Cairngorms, ScotlandQuaternary Science Reviews291040-10540277-379110.1016/j.quascirev.2010.01.007://WOS:000276749200016; summarise the results of a range of sediment-based studies at Lochan Wine, a remote corrie lake in the heart of the Cairngorm massif in Scotland The site lies above the Holocene forest limit and has been minimally affected by human activities. The results presented are mainly based on magnetic measurements, element analysis, granulometry, organic geochemical analysis and pollen analysis carried out over a period of some 15 years. The magnetic properties and element concentrations record a coherent sequence of changes reflecting mainly stages in catchment erosion In terms of the chronology developed for the sedimentary record from the site, increases in allochthonous, minerogenic sediment delivery to the lake occurred around 1000 BC, AD 330-480 and AD 1260-1410 The only notable change in the pollen diagram records a period of deforestation at lower altitude predating the last of the periods of increased erosion. The organic geochemistry analyses record a series of higher frequency responses in the aquatic ecosystem, already noted in previous papers, e.g Battarbee et al. (2001). These include fluctuations in organic carbon content and in the concentrations of biomarkers indicative of changing lake productivity Both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses are superimposed on a longer-term trend of declining aquatic productivity, progressive catchment weathering and increasing erosion. The sediments of Lochan Uaine thus appear to have recorded complex system responses on three timescales reflecting (a) the long term decline in northern hemisphere Insolation during the Holocene, (b) the millennial scale forcing of the kind found in many other mid-late Holocene records and (c) much shorter term, quasi-cyclic but clearly a-periodic sub-millennial fluctuations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliver, F.1969DeesideForestry428-160015752X (ISSN)10.1093/forestry/42.1.8;; a general description of the factors affecting tree-growing in the Dee valley, a brief account is given of the history of forestry and its present place in land use in an unusually self-contained region. (C) 1969 Oxford University Press.
Orenstein, D.E.; Katz-Gerro, T.; Dick, J.2017Environmental tastes as predictors of environmental opinions and behaviorsLandscape and Urban Planning16159-710169-204610.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.01.005://WOS:000397368600007; develop a novel way to assess how individuals perceive and utilize their local environment. Specifically, we query local residents in Scotland's Cairngorms National Park regarding their preferences for different characteristics of their environment and examine how these preferences correlate with environmental behaviors and opinions. We identify groupings of preferred characteristics as distinct environmental tastes that, drawing upon Bourdieu's theory of taste, represent general dispositions, preferences, or orientations regarding the environment. We then test whether these tastes are useful for explaining environmental behaviors and opinions. We introduced this idea previously using survey data drawn from residents of a hyper-arid ecosystem. Here, we seek to establish whether our framework has potentially universal applications generalizable to other socio-ecological settings. We analyze survey data collected from inhabitants of the Cairngorms and, using data reduction methods, identify four distinct environmental tastes. We demonstrate how tastes constitute significant correlates of private sphere environmental behavior, engagement in outdoor activities, opinions about development, perceived economic benefit from the environment, and environmental concerns. Environmental tastes defined for the Cairngorms are similar to those drawn from previous research and we find several parallels between the two different settings in the associations between tastes and opinions and behavior. There are similarities in the way individuals with certain profiles of environmental tastes are more inclined to have certain opinions and to engage in certain activities. We suggest that tastes can be elucidating for understanding diverse preferences for environmental characteristics and their broader implications for how humans interact with the landscape. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Sullivan, P.E.1974Radiocarbon-dating and prehistoric forest clearance on Speyside (East-Central Highlands of Scotland)Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society40206-2080079497X (ISSN)10.1017/s0079497x00011427
O'Sullivan, P.E.1975Early and Middle‐Flandrian pollen zonation in the Eastern Highlands of ScotlandBoreas4197-20703009483 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1502-3885.1975.tb00689.x; review is presented of published data on Early and Middle‐Flandrian pollen zones recorded at various sites in the Eastern Highlands of Scotland. This reveals a number of screpancies from site to site, particularly with regard to the position and timing both of the Pine expansion, and the Alnus‐rise. On Deeside, Pine‐Birch forests appear to have been established before the main expansion of Alder, which occurs on Upper Deeside in the period following 6700 B.P. On Speyside, evidence is conflicting, suggesting either that the arrival of Pine and Alder took place almost synchronously about 7000 B.P., or that, as on Deeside, Pine‐Birch forest establishment preceded the main Alnus‐rise, dated at Loch Garten at about 5900 B.P. In addition, the rate of immigration of Pine recorded at silcs of close proximily appears to vary quite markedly. Evidence from two further Speyside diagrams confirms the second view, and also shows that a gradual expansion of Pinus values took place during the period 8000‐6600 B.P., with the Alnus‐risc delayed until 5500 B.P. Discrepancies in the records of Early and Middle‐Flandrian pollen zones from site to site are then explained in terms of differential accumulation rates, and the theory that the phase of expansion of the Pine in the Eastern Highlands took place during a period of low or falling water‐levels. Copyright (C) 1975, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Palmer, S.C.F., et al.2003The perils of having tasty neighbors: Grazing impacts of large herbivores at vegetation boundariesEcology842877-28900012-965810.1890/02-0245://WOS:000187363200008; boundaries between vegetation patches are focal points for dynamic interactions between plant communities, particularly in,grazed ecosystems where vegetation types may differ in their acceptability to herbivores. Here we show that key vegetation resources attract herbivores, and the surrounding vegetation receives a higher impact than if it is associated with patches of less preferred vegetation (an example of apparent competition). We studied the influence of proximity to preferred grass patches on utilization of the less preferred dwarf shrub, heather (Calluna vulgaris) by red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep (Ovis aries) at a range of spatial scales in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland, UK. There was a sharp decline in heather utilization with increasing distance from the edges of grass patches. The proportion of grass in the local landscape (within I km) had a significant positive effect on heather utilization both at the grass-heather boundary and beyond 5 m from the grass patch. There was also a significant effect of dominant grass species on the utilization of heather within 50 cm of the grass-patch edge, with utilization around Agrostis/Festuca patches (most preferred) being greater than around Nardus-dominated patches, and lowest around patches of Molinia. The greatest contribution to variation in heather utilization was at the smallest scale, and variance components decreased as spatial scale increased, making it impossible to predict local heather utilization (i.e., at the scale of individual plants and of individual bites by foraging ungulates) from large-scale parameters alone, such as herbivore density. These findings emphasize that vegetation-herbivore interactions are localized within the landscape, and that it is these hot spots which are the key fulcrum for vegetation dynamics.
Pears, N.1975The growth rate of hill peats in scotlandGFF97265-27011035897 (ISSN)10.1080/11035897509454309; earlier study to assess growth rates in hill peats is reviewed and those results are compared with growth rates calculated for six peat profiles from the Cairngorm Mountains in north-eastern Scotland. For these profiles, radiocarbon dates are available from a series of macrofossil horizons. The significance of these dated tree-stump layers is then discussed. (C) 1975 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Pears, N.V.1967Wind as a factor in mountain ecology: Some data from the Cairngorm MountainsScottish Geographical Magazine83118-12400369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369226708736048;;
Pears, N.V.1967Present tree-lines of Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Ecology55815-&0022-047710.2307/2258427://WOS:A1967A491400016;
Pears, N.V.1968Man in the cairngorms: A population—resource balance problemScottish Geographical Magazine8445-5500369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369226808736071;;
Pears, N.V.1988Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedling survival above the tree-line in the cairngorm mountains, ScotlandForestry6161-710015752X (ISSN)10.1093/forestry/61.1.61;; 1964 the age, height and degree of damage were recorded for Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings on the slopes of Creag an Leth-choin in the Cairngorm Mountains, from an altitude of 550-915 m a.s.L. The survey was repeated 22 years later in an identical manner for the same area in 1986. The number of seedlings recorded and the past, e.g. 1959, 1975, 1976, seemed to be particularly favourable for seedling establishment. However, no seedlings from the 1964 cohort have survived the 22 years to the second survey of 1986. The highest number of seedlings did not occur in the altitudinal zone nearest the seed source, the tree-line, but between 640-700 m.These results are compared with two sets of data presented in 1982 by other workers for the Cairngorm Mountains. One set was from the unique creag Fhiaclach site, where a natural tree-line still exists; the other was nearby to this in the Glen Feshie area. The main threats to seedling survival are identified. It is argued that the Creag an Lethchoin data is more typical for the Cairngorms as a whole. (C) 1988 Oxford University Press.
Pears, N.V.1988Pine stumps, radiocarbon dates and stable isotope analysis in the cairngorm mountains: Some observationsReview of Palaeobotany and Palynology54175-18000346667 (ISSN)10.1016/0034-6667(88)90013-9; data on radiocarbon dates and new data on stable isotope analyses of pine macrofossils in the Cairngorm Mountains of Northeast Scotland have recently been presented by Dubois and Ferguson (1985). Their findings are reviewed and alternative explanations are offered for several of heir conclusions. (C) 1988.
Pears, N.V.1988Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedling survival above the tree-line in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandForestry6161-710015-752X10.1093/forestry/61.1.61://WOS:A1988M587700005;
Pepper, S.1989The Cairngorms: an international responsibilityECOS: a Review of Conservation1016-21 issue of skiing development in Lurcher's Gulley in the Cairngorms has been resurrected again after being turned down in 1981. This time the proposal has surfaced in an enabling policy in the Highland Regional Council's Draft Structure Plan Review. The author argues that the proposal is akin to placing a casino in a cathedral. There is a demand, and it would be profitable, but is it desirable, since the Cairngorms have already been despoiled enough and are of worldwide conservation interest? Furthermore, only one third of the visitors to the area are skiers. -A.Gilg
Phillip, S.; MacMillan, D.C.2006Car park charging in the Cairngorms National ParkScottish Geographical Journal122204-2220036-922510.1080/00369220601100075://WOS:000244211000003; for parking in the countryside pose a particular dilemma in Scotland as they are seen by many outdoor groups as a backdoor approach to restricting the public's newly acquired right of responsible access to the countryside. The issue is particularly sensitive in the case of the Cairngorms National Park (CNP) where charging has spread to a number of key car parks across the area. Based on the results of a survey of over 300 visitors this paper investigates visitors' attitudes and perceptions towards car park charging in the CNP, and explores the conditions under which they would find charging legitimate; in particular, the notion of hypothecation (i.e. the practice of declaring where and how monies contributed will be spent). We find that the vast majority of visitors surveyed are supportive of charging but that support is conditional on: the nature of the charging system, the type of location in question, and the landowners' commitment to hypothecating user fees for reinvestment in visitor facilities and preservation of the environment. We conclude by proposing a CNP-wide charging policy, fundamentally based on the principle of hypothecation.
Phillips, E., et al.2007Microstructures in subglacial and proglacial sediments: understanding faults, folds and fabrics, and the influence of water on the style of deformationQuaternary Science Reviews261499-15280277-379110.1016/j.quascirev.2007.03.007://WOS:000248349700003; field and micromorphological studies have been carried out on subglacially and proglacially deformed glacigenic sequences at a number of sites throughout Scotland, UK. Examination of microstructures (folds, faults, hydrofractures, plasmic fabrics) aided understanding of the deformation histories preserved in the sediments, but a similar range of structures were developed in both Subglacial and Proglacial settings. Discrimination between Subglacial and Proglacial deformation was only possible when micromorphological data was used in conjunction with larger-scale field observations. variations in lithology and water content were controlling factors influencing the style and apparent intensity of deformation recorded. Changes in pore-water content and pressure during deformation can lead to liquefaction and hydrofracturing, with early-formed structures locally controlling the pattern of water escape. Liquefaction can also lead to homogenisation of the sediments and the destruction of earlier deformation structures, even at relatively low strains. Beds or zones of liquefied sand and silt may form highly 'lubricated' detachments within the sediment pile, resulting in a marked reduction in the amount of shear transmitted to underlying units. A multidisciplinary approach, involving sedimentological, geomorphological, stratigraphical and structural field observations, combined with micromorphological analysis, is recommended to confidently unravel the glacitectonic history and depositional environment of most deformed glacigenic sedimentary sequences. (C) 2007 NERC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phillips, W.M., et al.2006Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of tors and erratics, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland: Timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosionGeomorphology73222-2450169555X (ISSN)10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.06.009 occurrence of tors within glaciated regions has been widely cited as evidence for the preservation of relic pre-Quaternary landscapes beneath protective covers of non-erosive dry-based ice. Here, we test for the preservation of pre-Quaternary landscapes with cosmogenic surface exposure dating of tors. Numerous granite tors are present on summit plateaus in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland where they were covered by local ice caps many times during the Pleistocene. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al data together with geomorphic relationships reveal that these landforms are more dynamic and younger than previously suspected. Many Cairngorm tors have been bulldozed and toppled along horizontal joints by ice motion, leaving event surfaces on tor remnants and erratics that can be dated with cosmogenic nuclides. As the surfaces have been subject to episodic burial by ice, an exposure model based upon ice and marine sediment core proxies for local glacial cover is necessary to interpret the cosmogenic nuclide data. Exposure ages and weathering characteristics of tors are closely correlated. Glacially modified tors and boulder erratics with slightly weathered surfaces have 10Be exposure ages of about 15 to 43 ka. Nuclide inheritance is present in many of these surfaces. Correction for inheritance indicates that the eastern Cairngorms were deglaciated at 15.6 ± 0.9 ka. Glacially modified tors with moderate to advanced weathering features have 10Be exposure ages of 19 to 92 ka. These surfaces were only slightly modified during the last glacial cycle and gained much of their exposure during the interstadial of marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 or earlier. Tors lacking evidence of glacial modification and exhibiting advanced weathering have 10Be exposure ages between 52 and 297 ka. Nuclide concentrations in these surfaces are probably controlled by bedrock erosion rates instead of discrete glacial events. Maximum erosion rates estimated from 10Be range from 2.8 to 12.0 mm/ka, with an error weighted mean of 4.1 ± 0.2 mm/ka. Three of these surfaces yield model exposure-plus-burial ages of 295-71 +84, 520-141 +178, and 626-85 +102 ka. A vertical cosmogenic nuclide profile across the oldest sampled tor indicates a long-term emergence rate of 31 ± 2 mm/ka. These findings show that dry-based ice caps are capable of substantially eroding tors by entraining blocks previously detached by weathering processes. Bedrock surfaces and erratic boulders in such settings are likely to have nuclide inheritance and may yield erroneous (too old) exposure ages. While many Cairngorm tors have survived multiple glacial cycles, rates of regolith stripping and bedrock erosion are too high to permit the widespread preservation of pre-Quaternary rock surfaces. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phillips, W.M., et al.2006Cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 exposure ages of tors and erratics, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland: Timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosionGeomorphology73222-2450169-555X10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.06.009://WOS:000235375700003; occurrence of tors within glaciated regions has been widely cited as evidence for the preservation of relic pre-Quaternary landscapes beneath protective covers of non-erosive dry-based ice. Here, we test for the preservation of pre-Quaternary landscapes with cosmogenic surface exposure dating of tors. Numerous granite tors are present on summit plateaus in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland where they were covered by local ice caps many times during the Pleistocene. Cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 data together with geomorphic relationships reveal that these landforms are more dynamic and younger than previously suspected. Many Cairngorm tors have been bulldozed and toppled along horizontal joints by ice motion, leaving event surfaces on for remnants and erratics that can be dated with cosmogenic nuclides. As the surfaces have been subject to episodic burial by ice, an exposure model based upon ice and marine sediment core proxies for local glacial cover is necessary to interpret the cosmogenic nuclide data. Exposure ages and weathering characteristics of tors are closely correlated. Glacially modified tors and boulder erratics with slightly weathered surfaces have Be-10 exposure ages of about 15 to 43 ka. Nuclide inheritance is present in many of these surfaces. Correction for inheritance indicates that the eastern Cairngorms were deglaciated at 15.6 +/- 0.9 ka. Glacially modified tors with moderate to advanced weathering features have Be-10 exposure ages of 19 to 92 ka. These surfaces were only slightly modified during the last glacial cycle and gained much of their exposure during the interstadial of marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 or earlier. Tors lacking evidence of glacial modification and exhibiting advanced weathering have Be-10 exposure ages between 52 and 297 ka. Nuclide concentrations in these surfaces are probably controlled by bedrock erosion rates instead of discrete glacial events. Maximum erosion rates estimated from Be-10 range from 2.8 to 12.0 mm/ka, with an error weighted mean of 4.1 +/- 0.2 mm/ka. Three of these surfaces yield model exposure-plus-burial ages of 295(-71)(+84) and 626(-85)(+102) ka. A vertical cosmogenic nuclide profile across the oldest sampled for indicates a long-term emergence rate of 31 2 mm/ka. These findings show that dry-based ice caps are capable of substantially eroding tors by entraining blocks previously detached by weathering processes. Bedrock surfaces and erratic boulders in such settings are likely to have nuclide inheritance and may yield erroneous (too old) exposure ages. While many Cairngorm tors have survived multiple glacial cycles, rates of regolith stripping and bedrock erosion are too high to permit the widespread preservation of pre-Quaternary rock surfaces. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.
Plant, J.A.; Henney, P.J.; Simpson, P.R.1990The genesis of tin uranium granites in the Scottish Caledonides - implications for metallogenesisGeological Journal25431-&0072-105010.1002/gj.3350250325://WOS:A1990EP59700024; genesis of granites enriched in Sn and U and their role in the formation of Sn-U deposits is reviewed with particular reference to studies of geochemical, geophysical, and geological data sets from the Scottish Caledonides based on image analysis studies. The chemistry and tectonic setting of radioelement-enriched granites some of which are also enriched in Sn (e.g. Cairngorm intrusion) is distinct from that of the more commonly occurring calc-alkaline granites. On mantle-normalized diagrams they are enriched in U, Th, Rb, Nb, Ta, Li, F, Be, B, and Sn with marked depletion of Sr, Ba, Ti, and P; and on chondrite normalized REE diagrams they have high REE with La(N)/Lu(N) values of 1.8-6 and marked negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.3). These features are characteristic of Sn-U granites from S.W. England (Dartmoor) and elsewhere. Geophysical data indicate that the Caledonian Sn-U granites are the high points of a buried batholith (the East Grampian batholith) with a length of approximately 100km, breadth of about 40km, and depth of approximately 7-8km. The batholith is discordant to the Caledonian structural grain and was emplaced post-orogenically, probably in tensional pull-apart structures. Petrogenetic models and isotopic data for the Cairngorm granite preclude 'S'-type crustal melting models for its genesis; instead the preferred model involves combined assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) as the result of the addition of dioritic magma to the lower crust followed by up to 50 per cent fractional crystallization. The concentration of Sn, F, and radioelements in the granite magmas, the release of heat as the result of protracted fractionation, the large volumes of the intrusions, and their emplacement into fault systems are factors favouring the formation of Sn and U deposits. The high calculated heat production of such intrusions and their emplacement into faults along which reactivation can occur may explain the association of such granites with hydrothermal ore deposits formed long after magmatic cooling. Overall the role of granites in ore formation is complex and reflects such factors as the chemistry, heat production (contents of U, Th, and K), density, permeability, and response to deformation of intrusions as well as the availability of water in the rocks into which they are emplaced.
Proctor, M.C.F., et al.2009Evidence from water chemistry as a criterion of ombrotrophy in the mire complexes of Abernethy Forest, ScotlandJournal of Vegetation Science20160-1691100-923310.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.05643.x://WOS:000263701500017; cation analyses of water samples within a peatland site be used to infer solute sources to the samples, and so provide an objective criterion of ombrotrophy? Mire complexes within native Pinus sylvestris forest, in Abernethy Forest, north of the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, UK. Chemical analyses of major cations in 200 water samples, and chi(2) analysis of contingency tables relating species occurrence in the corresponding quadrat samples to the ombrotrophic-telluric division. The chemical data (especially the ratios Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and Na(+)/Mg(2+)) indicated a separation of about 140 essentially ombrotrophic samples from about 60 showing clear telluric influence; these conclusions are consistent with published rainwater analyses. For hydrological and meteorological reasons, a sharp separation cannot be expected, so the limit adopted here (Ca/Mg=1.0) is to some extent arbitrary, but the methods described provide a more objective criterion of ombrotrophy than any other. Contingency tables showed highly significant associations between species occurrence and the ombrotrophic-telluric division. The strongest associations included: (ombrotrophic) Eriophorum vaginatum, Odontoschisma sphagni and Sphagnum cuspidatum; (telluric) Carex panicea, Potentilla erecta, Carex echinata, Narthecium ossifragum, Sphagnum auriculatum s.l., Agrostis canina, Molinia caerulea, Eriophorum angustifolium, and Sphagnum recurvum s.l. The Abernethy mires are arguably more comparable with mire complexes on base-poor rocks in southern Scandinavia than with most ombrotrophic sites further south and west in Britain. As in Sweden, Narthecium ossifragum and Eriophorum angustifolium, generally ubiquitous on British and Irish ombrotrophic bogs, are "fen" plants at Abernethy.
Purves, R.S.; Barton, J.S.; Wright, D.S.B.1995Automated measurements of snow temperature profiles in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandMeteorological Applications2199-20713504827 (ISSN)10.1002/met.5060020302 programme to measure snow temperature profiles using thermistors with automatic data logging and telemetry is described for sites in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. The data for 1992/93 and 1993/94 are discussed in terms of snow metamorphic processes. Equilibrium forms and melt‐freeze dominate, but temperature gradients high enough to produce faceting can occur. These data have been utilised in the successful adaptation of the NXD (Nearest Day) avalanche forecasting model to the Northern Cairngorms. Copyright (C) 1995 Royal Meteorological Society
Purves, R.S.; Mackaness, W.A.; Sugden, D.E.1999An approach to modelling the impact of snow drift on glaciation in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Quaternary Science14313-3210267-817910.1002/(sici)1099-1417(199907)14:4<313::aid-jqs457>;2-d://WOS:000081554600004; paper uses a Geographical Information System (GIS) to develop a rule-based model of the effect of snow drifting on glacier growth in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland during the Younger Dryas interval. We develop a qualitative model of snow drift that uses a number of simple heuristics to generate a map of relative accumulation at a 50-m resolution over the massif. Relative susceptibility to snow drifting is then compared for a number of different zones under varying wind directions. We conclude that, under the conditions tested in our model, glaciation of the Cairngorms during the Younger Dryas was confined to the high corries and that the pattern of snow drifting suggested by our model points to dominant southerly winds. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rao, S.2004Classic wildlife sites: Mar Lodge Estate, CairngormsBritish Wildlife1686-9409580956 (ISSN)
Rao, S.J.2017Effect of reducing red deer Cervus elaphus density on browsing impact and growth of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris seedlings in semi-natural woodland in the Cairngorms, UKConservation EvidenceUniversity of Cambridge1422-2617582067 (ISSN) is the most commonly used management intervention to prevent damage to young woodland regeneration from deer. However, damage can also be prevented through reducing red deer numbers and alleviating browsing pressure. We investigated the effect of reducing red deer Cervus elaphus density on browsing impact and growth of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris seedlings at Mar Lodge Estate, Cairngorms, UK. Red deer numbers were reduced significantly between 1995 and 2016, and there was a concomitant significant reduction in deer pellet densities and browsing incidents. Positive growth of seedlings was small in the years soon after the deer reduction programme began, and was still being suppressed by browsing in 2007. However subsequently, seedling growth has increased as red deer numbers have been maintained below 3.5/km2. Red deer reduction appears to have been effective in reducing browsing impacts on Scots pine seedlings, allowing successful growth and establishment of regeneration. (C) 2017, University of Cambridge. All rights reserved.
Rapson, S.C.1985Minimum age of corrie moraine ridges in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandBoreas14155-1590300-9483://WOS:A1985APB3600011;
Ratcliffe, D.A.1991The mountain flora of Britain and IrelandBritish Wildlife310-2109580956 (ISSN) article is concerned with the flowering plant and fern species of continental northern or northern montane distribution which occur mainly on the region's mountains. Their occurrence is firstly discussed as the outcome of the interaction between present climate, topography, geology and soils, giving examples of the influence of these factors on the distribution of species. There are annotated tables of the montane, sub-montane and northern species found above and below potential tree-line. Next, the processes of vegetation migration and modification caused by long-term changes in climate and human activity are examined. A section of regional highlights is included, covering: in Wales the Brecon Beacons and Snowdonia; in England the Craven Pennines, Upper Teesdale and Lakeland; and in Scotland the Moffat Hills, the Ben Lawers area, Caenlochan and environs, the Cairngorms and Lochnagar, Beinn Dearg and Seana Bhraigh, and Inchnadamph, plus some relict montane floras in Ireland. Conservation measures are also considered. -J.W.Cooper
Rea, B.R.1998The Cairngorms - a landscape of selective linear erosionScottish Geographical Magazine114124-1290036-922510.1080/00369229818737041://WOS:000076284300008;;
Read, H.H.1927XIV.—The igneous and metamorphic history of cromar, deeside, aberdeenshireTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh55317-35300804568 (ISSN)10.1017/s0080456800016379;
Read, H.H.1928XXIX.—The Highland Schists of Middle Deeside and East Glen MuickTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh55755-77200804568 (ISSN)10.1017/s0080456800013375;
Rennie, A.2006The importance of National Parks to nation-building: Support for the National Parks Act (2000) in the Scottish ParliamentScottish Geographical Journal122223-23214702541 (ISSN)10.1080/00369220601100091 2000 Scotland finally introduced legislation to enable the establishment of its first national parks, 50 years after England and Wales. This paper considers interpretations of this event and reflects on the importance of national parks to nation-building. Grounded within a framework which holds landscape to be an important signifier of national identity, these issues are explored through a case study of the Cairngorms National Park. This study found that it was the 'nation-building' agenda which was a key factor in securing the unanimous support of the Scottish Parliament for the National Parks Act (2000) but that this agenda hid competing definitions of what shape Scotland's landscapes should be. This suggests that the National Parks Act appealed as a form of institutional, as opposed to cultural, nation-building. (C) 2006 Royal Scottish Geographical Society.
Robertson, S.1988Relationships between 'younger' and 'older basics' in the Glen Gairn area, north deesideScottish Journal of Geology2489-9200369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg24010089
Robertson‐Rintoul, M.S.E.1986A quantitative soil‐stratigraphic approach to the correlation and dating of post‐glacial river terraces in Glen Feshie, western CairngormsEarth Surface Processes and Landforms11605-61701979337 (ISSN)10.1002/esp.3290110604; is known about Holocene river terrace development in upland Scottish valleys. Interpretation of many of the terrace sequences, previously suggested to have been formed by meltwaters either from the last Scottish ice sheet or the Loch Lomond Advance, has generally been based on morphological data. In this paper an alternative approach to the traditional height‐based method of terrace correlation and dating is presented using data from Glen Feshie, western Cairngorms. Terrace fragments are numerically classified and objectively grouped using quantitative soil‐stratigraphic data. Principal Components Analysis is used to both quantify pedological data and separate temporal trends in the data from variance due to local site factors. The scores on the temporal component are used to derive soil‐stratigraphic units developed on the surficial sediments of the Glen Feshie terraces by grouping soil sites using a hierarchical clustering technique. This provides evidence for at least five soil‐stratigraphic units developed on the fluvial surfaces. Various methods of absolute dating control permits association of these surfaces with five phases of terrace development. These are placed tentatively at 13 000, 10 000, 3600, 1000, and 80 radiocarbon years B.P., suggesting at least three phases of valley floor incision in Glen Feshie during the late Holocene. Copyright (C) 1986 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Rodgers, P., et al.2004Groundwater-surface-water interactions in a braided river: a tracer-based assessmentHydrological Processes181315-13320885-608710.1002/hyp.1404://WOS:000221218000009; tracers (alkalinity and silica) were used to infer groundwater-surface-water exchanges in the main braided reach of the River Feshie, Cairngorms, Scotland. Stream-water samples were collected upstream and downstream of the braided section at fortnightly intervals throughout the 2001-2002 hydrological year and subsequently at finer resolution over two rainfall events. The braided reach was found to exert a significant downstream buffering effect on the alkalinity of these waters, particularly at moderate flows (4-8 m(3) s(-1)/congruent toQ(30-70)). Extensive hydrochemical surveys were undertaken to characterize the different source waters feeding the braids. Shallow groundwater flow systems at the edge of the braided floodplain, recharged by effluent streams and hillslope drainage, appeared to be of particular significance. Deeper groundwater was identified closer to the main channel, upwelling through the hyporheic zone. Both sources contributed to the significant groundwater-surface-water interactions that promote the buffering effect observed through the braided reach. Their impact was less significant at higher flows (> 15 m(3) s(-1)/>Q(10)) when acidic storm runoff from the peat-covered catchment headwaters dominated, as well as under baseflow conditions (<4 m(3) s(-1)/
Rodgers, P.; Soulsby, C.; Waldron, S.2005Stable isotope tracers as diagnostic tools in upscaling flow path understanding and residence time estimates in a mountainous mesoscale catchmentHydrological Processes192291-23070885-608710.1002/hyp.5677://WOS:000230831900010; measurements of precipitation and stream waters were used as a natural tracer to investigate hydrological pathways and residence times in the River Feshie, a complex mesoscale (231 km(2)) catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Precipitation delta(18)O exhibited strong seasonal variation over the 2001-02 hydrological year, ranging from -6.9 parts per thousand in the summer, to -12.0 parts per thousand during winter snowfalls (mean delta(18)O -9-59 parts per thousand). Although damped, this seasonality was reflected in stream water outputs at seven sampling sites in the catchment, allowing delta(18)O variations to be used to infer hydrological source areas. Thus, stream water delta(18)O was generally controlled by a seasonally variable storm flow end member, mixing with groundwater of more constant isotopic composition. Periodic regression analysis allowed the differences in this mixing process between monitoring subcatchments to be assessed more quantitatively to provide a preliminary estimate of mean stream water residence time. This demonstrated the importance of responsive hydrological pathways associated with peat and shallow alpine soils in the headwater subcatchments in producing seasonally variable runoff with short mean residence times (33-113 days). In contrast, other tributaries with more freely draining soils and larger groundwater storage in shallow aquifers provided more effective mixing of variable precipitation inputs, resulting in longer residence time estimates (178-445 days). The mean residence time of runoff leaving the Feshie catchment reflected an integration of these contrasting influences (110-200 days). These insights from delta(18)O measurements extend the hydrological understanding of the Feshie catchment gained from other hydrochemical tracers, and demonstrate the utility of isotope tracers in investigating hydrological processes at the mesoscale. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rodgers, P., et al.2005Using stable isotope tracers to assess hydrological flow paths, residence times and landscape influences in a nested mesoscale catchmentHydrology and Earth System Sciences9139-1551027-560610.5194/hess-9-139-2005://WOS:000232758700002; measurements in precipitation and stream waters were used to investigate hydrological flow paths and C, residence times at nested spatial scales in the mesoscale (233 km(2)) River Feugh catchment in the northeast of Scotland over the 2001-2002 hydrological year. Precipitation 6180 exhibited strong seasonal variation, which although C damped within the catchment, was reflected in stream water at six sampling sites. This allowed 8180 variations to be used to infer the relative influence of soil-derived storm flows with a seasonally variable isotopic signature, and groundwater of apparently more constant isotopic composition. Periodic regression analysis was then used to examine the sub-catchment difference using an exponential flow model to provide indicative estimates of mean stream water residence times, which varied between approximately 3 and 14 months. This showed that the effects of increasing scale on estimated mean stream water residence time was minimal beyond that of the smallest (ca. 1 km(2)) headwater catchment scale. Instead, the interaction of catchment soil cover and topography appeared to be the dominant controlling influence. Where sub-catchments had extensive peat coverage, responsive hydrological pathways produced seasonally variable 6180 signatures in runoff with short mean residence times (ca. 3 months). In contrast, areas dominated by steeper slopes, more freely draining soils and larger groundwater storage in shallow valley-bottom aquifers, deeper flow paths allow for more effective mixing and damping of 8180 indicating longer residence times (> 12 months). These insights from 6180 measurements extend the hydrological understanding of the Feugh catchment gained from previous geochemical tracer studies, and demonstrate the utility of isotope tracers in investigating the interaction of hydrological processes and catchment characteristics at larger spatial scales.
Rogers, E.1974European tumour virology at AviemoreNature24911200280836 (ISSN)10.1038/249112a0;
Rosie, G.1988Natural pineBirds128-1215130428 (ISSN) the bird life of Abernethie Forest, Speyside, remnant Scots pine Pinus sylvestris forest which includes the 3000 acre nature reserve at Loch Garten where osprey Pandion haliaetus breed. The Native Pinewood Grant Scheme has had little take-up, and criticisms are reported of the role of the Foresty Commission in providing appropriate pinewood habitat. -P.J.Jarvis
Rott, H., et al.1999HYDALP, a European project on the use of remote sensing for snowmelt runoff modelling and forecastingProceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS'99) 'Remote Sensing of the Systems Earth - A Challenge for the 21st Century'Piscataway, NJ, United States;Hamburg, GerIEEE31779-1782 HYDALP project is aimed at the application of Earth observation data to improve modelling and forecasting of daily runoff in alpine and high latitude basins. SAR from ERS-1 & -2 and Radarsat, together with optical images from SPOT, Landsat, IRS, NOAA, and RESURS are used for snow cover monitoring. Automatic and semi-automatic tools have been developed for generating snow maps from the various sensors. The models HBV and SRM are used to calculate daily stream flow. Model modifications have been implemented to optimise the use of input from remote sensing. The methods for satellite data analysis and hydrological modelling have been tested for drainage basins in the Austrian and Swiss Alps, in the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland and in Northern Sweden. During spring 1999, runoff forecasting is planned in real time to test the satellite data links and processing chains, in order to assess the operational potential of Earth observation for water management.
Rushbrooke, J.N.; Beaumont, F.1986River Dee scheme and intake protection systemsJournal of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists40173-19203091600 (ISSN) River Dee pollution incident of January 1984, when over two million consumers in Deeside, Cheshire and Merseyside received water supplies contaminated with a strong chlorophenolic taste, drew attention to the need to improve the intake protection systems available to the four water supply undertakings who use the River Dee as a source for potable water. Following the January 1984 incident, a Joint Report was produced which highlighted the vulnerability of the River Dee derived sources and concluded that there was a need to improve the monitoring of raw and treated waters, and the communications between all abstractors, external official bodies and the media. This paper summarizes the improvements that have been made since then in the overall area of River Dee intake protection systems, with particular emphasis on river water quality monitoring and communications within North West Water. The success of these improvements in preventing any contaminated water entering the supply system during a number of serious pollution incidents in early 1985 is demonstrated. The River Dee pollution incident occurred in January 1984, when over two million consumers in Deeside, Cheshire and Merseyside received water supplies contaminated with a strong chlorophenolic taste. This paper summarizes the improvements that have been made since then in the overall area of River Dee intake protection systems, with particular emphasis on river water quality monitoring and communications within North West Water. The success of these improvements in preventing any contaminated water entering the supply system during a number of serious pollution incidents in early 1985 is demonstrated.
Rydval, M., et al.2016Detection and removal of disturbance trends in tree-ring series for dendroclimatologyCanadian Journal of Forest Research46387-4010045-506710.1139/cjfr-2015-0366://WOS:000375944900011;; disturbance events are an integral element in the history of forests. Although the identification of the occurrence and duration of such events may help to understand environmental history and landscape change, from a dendroclimatic perspective, disturbance can obscure the climate signal in tree rings. However, existing detrending methods are unable to remove disturbance trends without affecting the retention of long-term climate trends. Here, we address this issue by using a novel method for the detection and removal of disturbance events in tree-ring width data to assess their spatiotemporal occurrence in a network of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees from Scotland. Disturbance trends "superimposed" on the tree-ring record are removed before detrending and the climate signals in the precorrection and postcorrection chronologies are evaluated using regional climate data, proxy system model simulations, and maximum latewood density (MXD) data. Analysis of subregional chronologies from the West Highlands and the Cairngorms in the east reveals a higher intensity and more systematic disturbance history in the western subregion, likely a result of extensive timber exploitation. The method improves the climate signal in the two subregional chronologies, particularly in the more disturbed western sites. Our application of this method demonstrates that it is possible to minimise the effects of disturbance in tree-ring width chronologies to enhance the climate signal.
Rydval, M., et al.2017Reconstructing 800 years of summer temperatures in Scotland from tree ringsClimate Dynamics492951-29740930-757510.1007/s00382-016-3478-8://WOS:000414153800002; study presents a summer temperature reconstruction using Scots pine tree-ring chronologies for Scotland allowing the placement of current regional temperature changes in a longer-term context. 'Living-tree' chronologies were extended using 'subfossil' samples extracted from nearshore lake sediments resulting in a composite chronology > 800 years in length. The North Cairngorms (NCAIRN) reconstruction was developed from a set of composite blue intensity high-pass and ring-width low-pass filtered chronologies with a range of detrending and disturbance correction procedures. Calibration against July-August mean temperature explains 56.4% of the instrumental data variance over 1866-2009 and is well verified. Spatial correlations reveal strong coherence with temperatures over the British Isles, parts of western Europe, southern Scandinavia and northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula. NCAIRN suggests that the recent summer-time warming in Scotland is likely not unique when compared to multi-decadal warm periods observed in the 1300s, 1500s, and 1730s, although trends before the mid-sixteenth century should be interpreted with some caution due to greater uncertainty. Prominent cold periods were identified from the sixteenth century until the early 1800s-agreeing with the so-called Little Ice Age observed in other tree-ring reconstructions from Europe-with the 1690s identified as the coldest decade in the record. The reconstruction shows a significant cooling response 1 year following volcanic eruptions although this result is sensitive to the datasets used to identify such events. In fact, the extreme cold (and warm) years observed in NCAIRN appear more related to internal forcing of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.
Schildgen, T.F.; Phillips, W.M.; Purves, R.S.2005Simulation of snow shielding corrections for cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure studiesGeomorphology6467-850169-555X10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.05.003://WOS:000226660000003; cover reduces cosmogenic nuclide production rates in bedrock. Corrections for snow cover can be more than 10% in mountainous, mid-latitude regions where many glacial chronologies have been constructed using cosmogenic nuclide surface dating of landforms. Most published snow corrections use historic climate data of limited duration that are not likely to reflect adequately the full range of snow conditions over the time of exposure. We present a model for describing the impact of snow burial on long-term exposure histories of landforms. The model applies an energy balance approach to snowpack evolution and incorporates both historic and long-term climate proxy data. Attenuation of cosmogenic fast neutrons is modeled alternatively as a simple exponential decrease with increased shielding or as a thin surface layer with constant production followed by an exponential decrease with increasing depth. The choice of attenuation model has little effect on the modeled results for the Caimgorms but will have a more significant effect in regions characterized by thinner, less dense snowpacks. Spatial variability in snow cover is modeled as a function of elevation only, ignoring local variability in snow accumulation as a result of slope aspect, wind redistribution and local topography. Thus, model results reveal general spatial and temporal trends in snow shielding effects, rather than site-specific corrections. Applications to data from the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland show that the constant-plus-exponential (CPE) production rate-depth profile reduces but does not eliminate snow-shielding effects. Under present-day conditions, snow at 900 in in the Cairngorm Mountains reduces average production rates by 6% using the CPE profile and 9% with the exponential profile (EP). Long-term climate simulations from 15.5 ka through today produce larger snow shielding effects, mainly because they predict an increased proportion of precipitation as snowfall during the Younger Dryas. At 900 in, this long-term simulation reduces average cosmogenic isotope production rates by 12% (CPE) and 14% (EP). These results indicate that snow-shielding corrections based on historic climate records may be a potential source of systematic error in midlatitude mountainous regions. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scott, D., et al.2002Use of a weighing lysimeter system to assess the effects of trampling on evapotranspiration of montane plant communitiesCanadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique80675-6830008-402610.1139/b02-049://WOS:000177038400012; aim was to investigate the impacts of trampling on water loss and partitioning in vegetation with contrasting structure and species composition. A new design of weighing lysimeter was used in glasshouse experiments to compare evapotranspiration from intact and trampled blocks of vegetation. The lysimeter system was able to detect differences between treatments after only a few hours. Evapotranspiration was recorded for six communities, representative of cryptogam - vascular plant communities found in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Vegetation blocks of Racomitrium and Vaccinium/Hylocomium heath communities had the greatest cumulative evapotranspiration and lichen heath the least over 48 h. Blocks from three of the communities (Agrostis/Festuca grassland, Calluna wet heath, and lichen heath) were used in a trampling experiment with five levels of damage. Trampling progressively destroyed the structure of the vegetation of all communities and increased the rates of water loss from the blocks. The grassland community vegetation was the most resilient. These results help to link the massive changes in vegetation structure resulting from trampling to effects on water loss and microclimate.
Scott, M.1992What future for the Cairngorms?ECOS: a Review of Conservation1316-23 general review of the land-use planning issues in the Cairngorms, Scotland. The article outlines the importance of the area and the threats to its integrity before looking at a number of key planning cases, including the proposal to extend skiing into Lurchers Gully and the proposed designation of the area as a World Heritage Site. The end result is that the area still lacks any integrated management strategy but it is concluded that designation as a world Heritage Site and as an European Special Area for Conservation and a Natura 2000 site could do more for the area than 60 yr of disheartening debate in Scotland internally has achieved. -A.Gilg
Scott, M.2009Climate change and the high cairngorms: Reality and hyperboleBritish Wildlife20389-39709580956 (ISSN)
Sissons, J.B.1972The last glaciers in part of the South East GrampiansScottish Geographical Magazine88168-18100369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369227208736225;; an area of 400 sq km in the south east Grampians including Glen Esk, Glen Clova and part of Glen Muick the limits of former corrie glaciers, valley glaciers and a plateau ice-cap with associated outlet glaciers have been mapped. The limits of the former corrie and valley glaciers are often clearly defined by end moraines, boulder-strewn ground, the down-valley termination of hummocky moraines and/or the limits of meltwater channel systems, while in suitable locations outwash terraces usually occur. The glaciers are considered to have formed during the Loch Lomond (pollen zone III) Readvance, when new glaciers developed in upland sources following complete ice-sheet decay. The readvance was accompanied in granite areas by the formation of large solifluction lobes, these lobes being found only outside the mapped ice limits. The interpretations presented are not in accord with those recently given by D. E. Sugden for the western Cairngorms. (C) 1972 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Sissons, J.B.1979Palaeoclimatic inferences from former glaciers in Scotland and the Lake DistrictNature278518-52100280836 (ISSN)10.1038/278518a0; line altitudes of Loch Lomond Advance glaciers in Scotland and the Lake District imply that snowfall was associated mainly with south to southeasterly air streams preceding fronts. Precipitation was high in the south-west Grampians and very low in the north-west Cairngorms and Speyside. The junction of polar and relatively warm ocean waters at the latitude of south-west Ireland was associated with many depressions following more southerly tracks than at present. It is suggested that during ice-sheet growth the zone of maximum snowfall moved southwards over the British Isles. (C) 1979 Nature Publishing Group.
Sissons, J.B.1979Loch Lomond Advance in the Cairngorm mountainsScottish Geographical Magazine9566-820036-922510.1080/00369227908736423://WOS:A1979HM61300001;
Sissons, J.B.1980Palaeoclimatic inferences from Loch Lomond Advance glaciersLowe, J.J.; Gray, J.M.; Robinson, J.E.Studies in the Lateglacial of north-west EuropePergamon31-43 firn line altitudes and relative dimensions of these glaciers in Scotland and the Lake District indicate that snowfall was associated mainly with S to SE air streams preceding warm and occluded fronts, although SW air streams were more common. Precipitation was high in the western Grampians and in much of the ground west of the Great Glen, but relatively low in the NW Highlands and very low in the NW Cairngorms and Speyside. -from Author
Sissons, J.B.; Grant, A.J.H.1972The Last glaciers in the Lochnagar area, AberdeenshireScottish Journal of Geology885-9300369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg08020085 in Glen Callater, Glen Muick and the four corries of Lochnagar are used to delimit a glacial readvance. The freshness of the forms and their relation to large solifluction lobes imply that the readvance is the Loch Lomond or Zone III Readvance. The very different type of interpretation recently given by Sugden for the adjacent Cairngorm area is discussed and rejected.
Smart, R., et al.2001A model for predicting chloride concentrations in river water in a relatively unpolluted catchment in north-east ScotlandScience of the Total Environment265131-1410048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(00)00654-9://WOS:000166784300012; River Dee is an oligotrophic soft water system, in the NE of Scotland, with a catchment area of approximately 2100 km(2). The river rises in the Cairngorm Mountains and enters the North Sea at Aberdeen, approximately 140 km from its source. Water chemical quality data was collected every 2 weeks over 12 months for 59 sites distributed throughout the catchment. River water chloride concentrations increased significantly from west to east, In depth investigation of the relationship with distance from the coast revealed the significant difference in spatial distribution of river water chloride concentrations between upland and lowland/agricultural areas, suggesting the possible importance of agricultural practices to streamwater chloride concentrations. Thirty of the sample sites are independent and have been used to develop a simple model for prediction of streamwater Cl- concentration throughout the catchment. The model has been validated using data from the remaining sub-catchments. The model shows that mean Cl- concentration may be reliably predicted from distance from the coast and the percentage of improved grassland and arable land cover in each sub-catchment (r(2) = 0.98). It is postulated that the land use effects may be partly due to the evolved link between landuse and catchment altitude characteristics, rather than just the direct effect of applied potassium chloride fertiliser on agricultural land. It was noted that there was insufficient forestry within the River Dee Catchment to reliably include % forest cover in the model. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. Ail rights reserved.
Smart, R.P., et al.1998Factors regulating the spatial and temporal distribution of solute concentrations in a major river system in NE ScotlandScience of the Total Environment22193-1100048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(98)00196-x://WOS:000077366400001; River Dee in NE Scotland, an oligotrophic soft water system, has a catchment area of approx.: 2100 km(2), its source in the Cairngorm mountains being approx. 140 km from its outlet to the North Sea at Aberdeen. A comprehensive sampling strategy and analytical programme, commensurate with the size and nature of the Dee system, have been established for major water quality determinands to identify the controls on, and origins of, dissolved species throughout the system at a range of catchment scales and over a range of flow regimes. Fifty-nine sites covering a range of catchment types and scales were therefore sampled bi-weekly for 1 year. At the basin scale, there is a general downstream increase in determinand concentrations. This produces strong linear relationships between many determinands which are unrelated in terms of a common terrestrial process or origin. At the sub-catchment scale, however, specific hydrochemical processes control streamwater chemistry. The Dee basin divides into two distinct geographic regions in terms of land use (upland and lowland) which produce clear differences in water chemistry. Individual sub-catchments can also be grouped in terms of temporal variations in streamwater chemistry. The strength of the relationship between weathering-derived ionic concentrations and flow in the upland sub-catchments has lead to the identification of specific concentration limits in sub-catchments which can be used as characteristics of soil water and groundwater end-members. This provides a basis for the prediction of upland weathering-derived component concentrations for each sub-catchment at a range of flows. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, C.G.2017An introduction to the Scottish Mineral Geological Conservation Review sitesProceedings of the Geologists' AssociationGeologists' Association00167878 (ISSN)10.1016/j.pgeola.2017.04.009; for its small size possesses a more complex geology than anywhere else in the world, consequently the country has a rich mineral legacy. There are around 650 mineral species now known to occur in Scotland; most of these are silicates, but the assemblage also includes oxides, sulphides and sulphates. Most formed by igneous or metamorphic processes. The igneous minerals produced depends on the nature of the intrusion, be it granitoid or basic to ultrabasic, and also on when it formed in the intrusive cycle; i.e. in early magmatic stages or in late-stage veining. Metamorphic minerals are the product of temperature, pressure and the nature of the precursor rock. A few minerals, such as carbonates and iron oxides are of sedimentary origin, and some formed by the addition of material (mostly metal elements) to rocks, a process known as mineralisation. The choice of mineral GCR sites is based on the presence of rare species and/or unusually large concentrations of minerals and/or the provision of good evidence of geological processes. All sites have national significance and the Meall Tairneachan-Creag An Loch Ba-Zn-Pb deposit is of world-class importance. The coverage of the nation's mineral species is demonstrated by providing a brief description of them which highlights the sites at which they occur. Thus it will be seen that some minerals are predominant at a number of sites: e.g. galena is the main ore mineral at Leadhills-Wanlockhead, Tyndrum and Strontian. Similarly silica, mostly in the form of quartz is present at many sites, but only in its more exotic form such as agate or cairngorm is it the raison d'etre for its choice as a GCR site. (C) 2017 The Geologists' Association.
Smith, M.; Bunce, R.G.H.2004Veteran trees in the landscape: a methodology for assessing landscape features with special reference to two ancient landscapesLANDSCAPE ECOLOGY OF TREES AND FORESTS, 12th Annual Conference of the International-Association-for-Landscape-Ecology Location: Royal Agr Coll, Cirencester, ENGLAND Date: JUN 21-24, 2004 Int Assoc Landscape Ecol168-175://WOS:000226029800021This paper sets out a field-tested methodology that can assess the relationship between selected environmental attributes of the landscape. Attributes have been measured from randomly selected sample squares across the Atlantic biogeographic region, as defined by Alterra's environmental land class system. The landscape form (dictated by hydrological factors), relative proportions of the broad habitats, and land uses within each square were also recorded. The methodology pays particular attention to biologically important veteran trees, defined based on a combination of tree size for each species and veteran characteristics. Special reference is made to two ancient landscapes, with significant populations of these veteran trees: the Caledonian Pinewoods of Glenmore in the Cairngorms of Scotland and the Bocage landscape of Brittany in western France. The paper investigates how the attributes measured by this methodology may be used as a measure of ecological functionality and landscape condition.
Smith, R.D.1996Racial composition of breeding and wintering Snow Buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the North-East Scottish uplandsRinging and Migration17123-13603078698 (ISSN)10.1080/03078698.1996.9674128; paper quantifies variation in several plumage features between and within Snow Bunting races and age groups, and stresses the importance of correcting for such variation, and observer variation, when estimating the racial composition of a sample of Snow Buntings. I show that the majority of Snow Buntings caught at North-east Scottish upland sites during winters 1987/88 to 1992/93 were of the dark Icelandic race Plectrophenax nivalis insulae. Birds more characteristic of the nominate nivalis race (from Greenland and/or Scandinavia) were more frequent amongst males (up to 40%) than females (0–10%). An even greater predominance of P.n. insulae was noted amongst birds remaining to breed on the Scottish Cairngorm Mountains. (C) 1996 British Trust for Ornithology.
Smith, R.D.; Marquiss, M.1995Production and costs of nesting attempts in Snow Buntings Plectrophenax nivalis: why do they attempt second broods?Ibis137469-47600191019 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1474-919X.1995.tb03255.x; 1988–1993, pairs of Snow Buntings Plectrophenax nivalis on our study sites in northeast Scotland reared an average of 1.2 broods. Clutch sizes of first and second broods were similar, but partial losses were greater in second broods, leading to a difference of at least 40% in overall nest productivity between successful first and second broods. Over and above this, total nest failure was four times higher in the second broods, and autumn sightings of ringed nestlings from second broods were only a third of those of first‐brood nestlings. As a result, second broods produced a mere 10% of future recruits to the breeding population. However, there was also little evidence of costs associated with producing, or attempting to produce, second broods. Young from first broods were not less likely to reach independence if a second brood was attempted, between‐year return rates of double‐brooded adults were similar to those of single‐brooded birds and double‐brooded adults did not appear to be less fecund in the following summer. Therefore low costs to the adults of attempting second broods may allow the continuation of a strategy which appears to have only a marginal influence on overall reproductive success in the area studied. Copyright (C) 1995, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Smith, R.D.; Metcalfe, N.B.1994Age, sex and prior site experience have independent effects on the foraging success of wintering snow buntingsBehaviour12999-1100057959 (ISSN) the feeding rates of wintering Plectrophenax nivalis at Cairn Gorm, NE Scotland. Although flock-size/density and stage of the feeding bout accounted for most of the explainable variation in peck-rates, there remained significant and additive residual effects of both age and prior experience of the site (older/more experienced birds achieving higher feeding rates) and these effects were very similar for birds feeding alone or in flocks. Sex differences in feeding rates were only apparent in large flocks, where males (the dominant sex) had faster peck-rates than females. Birds without previus experience (whether age or site-related) showed increases in relative feeding rate during the course of the winter, whereas experienced birds did not. The differences between experienced and inexperienced birds were thus due to learning rather than the disproportionate loss of poor foragers. -Authors
Soulsby, C., et al.1998Hydrogeochemistry of shallow groundwater in an upland Scottish catchmentHydrological Processes121111-11270885-608710.1002/(sici)1099-1085(19980615)12:7<1111::aid-hyp633>;2-u://WOS:000074339500011; hydrogeochemistry of shallow groundwater has been characterized in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment in the Scottish Cairngorms in order to: (i) assess the spatial and temporal variation in groundwater chemistry; (ii) identify the hydrogeochemical processes regulating its evolution; and (iii) examine the influence of groundwater on the quality and quantity of stream flow. Shallow groundwater in superficial drift deposits is circumneutral (pH similar to 7.1) and base cation concentrations are enriched compared with precipitation and drainage water from overlying podzolic soils. Modelling with NETPATH suggests that the dominant geochemical processes that account for this are the dissolution of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. Groundwater emerging as springs from weathered granite underlying high altitude (> 900 m) alpine soils shows similar characteristics, though weathering rates are lower, probably as a result of reduced residence times and lower temperatures. Chemical hydrograph separation techniques using acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and Si as tracers show that groundwater is the dominant source of baseflow in the catchment and also buffers the chemistry of stream water at high flows: groundwater may account for as much as 50-60% of annual runoff in the catchment. Climate and land use in the Cairngorms are vulnerable to future changes, which may have major implications for hydrogeological processes in the area. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Soulsby, C.; Dunn, S.M.2003Towards integrating tracer studies in conceptual rainfall-runoff models: recent insights from a sub-arctic catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandHydrological Processes17403-4160885-608710.1002/hyp.1132://WOS:000180909000015; tracers (alkalinity and silica) were used in an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) of runoff sources in the 10 km(2) Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment. A three-component mixing model was used to separate the hydrograph and estimate, to a first approximation, the range of likely contributions of overland flow, shallow subsurface storm flow, and groundwater to the annual hydrograph. A conceptual, catchment-scale rainfall-runoff model (DIY) was also used to separate the annual hydrograph in an equivalent set of flow paths. The two approaches produced independent representations of catchment hydrology that exhibited reasonable agreement. This showed the dominance of overland flow in generating storm runoff and the important role of groundwater inputs throughout the hydrological year. Moreover, DIY was successfully adapted to simulate stream chemistry (alkalinity) at daily time steps. Sensitivity analysis showed that whilst a distinct groundwater source at the catchment scale could be identified, there was considerable uncertainty in differentiating between overland flow and subsurface storm flow in both the EMMA and DIY applications. Nevertheless, the study indicated that the complementary use of tracer analysis in EMMA can increase the confidence in conceptual model structure. However, conclusions are restricted to the specific spatial and temporal scales examined. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Soulsby, C., et al.2002Water quality in the Scottish uplands: a hydrological perspective on catchment hydrochemistryScience of the Total Environment29473-940048-969710.1016/s0048-9697(02)00057-8://WOS:000177199000007; above 300 m covers approximately 75% of the surface of Scotland and most of the nation's major river systems have their headwaters in this upland environment. The hydrological characteristics of the uplands exert an important influence on the hydrochemistry of both headwater streams and downstream river systems. Thus, many of the spatial and temporal patterns in the chemical quality of surface waters are mediated by hydrological processes that route precipitation through upland catchments. These hydrological pathways also have an important influence on how the hydrochemistry of upland streams is responding to increasing pressures from environmental changes at the global and regional scales. At the present time, atmospheric deposition remains an issue in many parts of the Scottish uplands, where critical loads of acidity are exceeded, particularly in areas affected by increasing N deposition. Moreover, climatic change forecasts predict increasingly wetter, warmer and more seasonal conditions, which may modify the hydrochemical regimes of many river systems, particularly those with a strong snowmelt component. On a more localised scale, land management practices, including felling of commercial forests, expansion of native woodlands, agricultural decline and moorland management all have implications for the freshwater environment. Moreover, increasing public access to upland areas for a range of recreational activities have implications for water quality. Understanding the hydrology of the uplands, through integrated field and modelling studies, particularly of the hydrological pathways that regulate chemical transfers to streamwaters, will remain an important research frontier for the foreseeable future. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Soulsby, C., et al.2012Spatial and temporal variability of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) spawning activity in braided river channels: a preliminary assessmentAquatic Sciences74571-5861015-162110.1007/s00027-012-0249-4://WOS:000305730500016; distribution of Atlantic salmon redds was recorded during two spawning seasons (2005 and 2006) along a 4 km braided reach of the river Feshie in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. Within this complex reach, four main channels types were differentiated on the basis of geographical water sources, channel morphology and hydrochemistry: (1) the main braided channels of the river Feshie; (2) groundwater channels fed by seepage at the edge of the floodplain; (3) hillslope tributary channels and (4) mixed channels downstream of confluences of two or more of types 1-3. The 2005 season was characterised by high and variable flows. In total, 223 redds were observed which were mainly (64%) located in groundwater channels, with relatively few (9%) in the more extensive sections of main channel. The second year had much lower and more stable flows. Here, a total of 337 redds were observed. The largest number were again located in the groundwater channels (44%), though spawning was more evenly distributed in the other channel types, including the main river (19%). It is hypothesised that the apparently more suitable characteristics of groundwater-fed channels relate to a more stable, richer environment for embryo development and juvenile growth, whilst hydraulic conditions and sediment stability in the main channel may create more adverse conditions for successful recruitment.
Soulsby, C., et al.1997Seasonal snowpack influence on the hydrology of a sub-arctic catchment in ScotlandJournal of Hydrology19217-320022-169410.1016/s0022-1694(96)03123-x://WOS:A1997XH24800002; cover, depth and water equivalent have been measured in each snow season between 1989/90 and 1993/94 in the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment in the western Cairngorms. Spatial and temporal patterns of snow accumulation vary: the peak measured water equivalent held in the catchment snowpack ranged from around 50 mm in mild winters to 200 mm in more severe ones. Snow accumulation was concentrated on north and east facing slopes in the parts of the catchment above 700 m. Point measurements of water equivalent in the areas of greatest accumulation exceeded 2000 mm as a result high densities produced by prolonged melt metamorphosis. Patterns of accumulation and melt strongly influenced the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the stream which has a distinct alpine-like regime. Low baseflows of high pH (>6.5) characterise cold periods of snow accumulation. Melt events are variable; slight increases in temperatures commonly melt all snow lying at low altitudes. More substantial melts involving the extensive snowpack at higher altitudes occur in the early spring as temperatures increase more significantly. Melt events strongly influence the hydrochemistry of the stream; preferential elution of Cl and SO4 were distinct characteristics of each melt season. Moreover, the most acidic (pH < 5.5) streamflows, and the highest levels of inorganic aluminium, were usually observed during snowmelt. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
Soulsby, C., et al.2005Groundwater-surface water interactions in upland Scottish rivers: hydrological, hydrochemical and ecological implicationsScottish Journal of Geology4139-490036-927610.1144/sjg41010039://WOS:000229177200006Contrary to previous hydrogeological assumptions, we now know that drift deposits and fracture systems in crystalline rocks can constitute important aquifers in the Scottish Highlands and other montane environments. Groundwater from these aquifers Usually has an important influence on the hydrology, hydrochemistry and ecology of upland river systems. Tracer-based research in the Girnock burn catchment in the Cairngorms revealed that groundwater comprises at least 30% of annual runoff. Groundwater often enters stream channels via drift deposits in valley bottom areas, which appear to be fed from recharge areas on the catchment interfluves. A range of groundwater sources exist in the catchment reflecting the complex solid and drift geology. These account for spatial differences in stream hydrochemistry and the spatial delineation of groundwater discharges to rivers and riparian zones. Areas where groundwaters enter the stream channel directly can have profound ecological implications. Most obvious are low rates of salmonid egg survival where chemically reduced groundwater discharges through the hyporheic zone. However, it is argued that only further research will reveal the full significance of groundwater-surface water interactions to the ecological status of Scottish rivers.
Soulsby, C., et al.1999Seasonal hydrology of oxygen-18 in the Allt a' Mharcaidh, Scotland: implications for water movement and residence timesLeibundgut, C.; McDonnell, J.; Schultz, G.Integrated Methods in Catchment Hydrology: Tracer, Remote Sensing and New Hydrometric TechniquesWallingfordInt Assoc Hydrological Sciences127-1341-901502-01-5://WOS:000085488000015The seasonal variation of oxygen-18 has been observed in precipitation, groundwater and streamwater in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment, Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. Precipitation showed strong seasonal variation in its isotopic signature over the 1995-1998 study period. As anticipated, such variation was substantially damped in groundwater and surface water. Nevertheless, O-18 proved a useful tracer, indicating the influence of spring snowmelt events and summer rainfall on stream waters. Detailed examination of the seasonal variation in delta(18)O levels in various catchment waters provided an insight into mixing processes and a first approximation of mean residence times. Preliminary estimates for the latter are <180 days for (inferred) near-surface soil water and storm runoff, 2.5 and >5 years for shallow and deeper groundwater respectively. These longer-term data sets demonstrate the ability of the catchment to effectively mix new precipitation with resident soil and groundwater over the hydrological year. This implies that the influence of groundwater on the hydrology and hydrochemistry upland catchments has been underestimated.
Soulsby, C., et al.2001Seasonality, water quality trends and biological responses in four streams in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandHydrology and Earth System Sciences5433-4501027-560610.5194/hess-5-433-2001://WOS:000172782600014; chemical composition and invertebrate communities found in four streams in the Cairngorms, Scotland, were monitored between 1985-1997. Stream waters were mildly acidic (mean pH ca. 6.5), with low alkalinity (mean acid neutralising capacity varying from 35-117 meq l(-1)) and low ionic strength. Subtle differences in the chemistry of each stream were reflected in their invertebrate faunas. Strong seasonality in water chemistry occurred, with the most acid, low alkalinity waters observed during the winter and early spring. This was particularly marked during snowmelt between January and April. In contrast, summer flows were usually groundwater dominated and characterised by higher alkalinity and higher concentrations of most other weathering-derived solutes. Seasonality was also clear in the invertebrate data, with Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) separating seasonal samples along axes related to water temperature and discharge characteristics. Inter-annual hydrological and chemical differences were marked, particularly with respect to the winter period. Invertebrate communities found in each of the streams also varied from year to year, with spring communities significantly more variable (P <0.01) than other seasons (quantified using Euclidean distance on CCA ordinations). Hydrochemical trends over the study period were analysed using a seasonal Kendall test, LOcally WEighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) and graphical techniques. These indicated that a reduction in sulphate concentrations in stream water is occurring, consistent with declining levels of atmospheric deposition. This may be matched by increases in pH and declining calcium concentrations, though available evidence is inconclusive. Other parameters, such as chloride, total organic carbon and zinc, reveal somewhat random patterns, probably reflecting irregular variations in climatic factors and/or atmospheric deposition. Previous studies have shown that the stream invertebrate communities have remained stable over this period (i.e. no significant linear trends) and show no evidence of acid-related impoverishment. Thus, over longer timescales invertebrates in these streams appear robust to the short-term (seasonal and inter-annual) environmental variability and long-term (decadal) chemical changes identified.
Soulsby, C., et al.1999Hydrogeochemistry of montane springs and their influence on streams in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandHydrology and Earth System Sciences3409-4191027-560610.5194/hess-3-409-1999://WOS:000083144700010; are important groundwater discharge points on the high altitude (>800m) plateaux of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland and form important wetland habitats within what is often a dry, sub-arctic landscape. The hydrogeochemistry of a typical spring in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment was examined between 1995-98 in order to characterise its chemical composition, identify the dominant controls on its chemical evolution and estimate groundwater residence time using O-18 isotopes. Spring water, sustained by groundwater flow in shallow drift deposits and fractured bedrock, was moderately acidic (mean pH 5.89), with a very low alkalinity (mean 18 mu eq l(-1)) and the ionic composition was dominated by sea-salts derived from atmospheric sources. Geochemical modelling using NETPATH, predicted that the dissolution of plagioclase mainly controls the release of Si, non-marine Na, Ca, K and Al into springs waters. Hydrological conditions influenced seasonal variations in spring chemistry, with snowmelt associated with more rapid groundwater flows and lower weathering rates than summer discharges. Downstream of the spring, the chemistry of surface waters was fundamentally different as a result of drainage from larger catchment areas, with increased soil and drift cover, and higher evaporation rates. Thus, the hydrogeochemical influence of springs on surface waters appears to be localized. Mean delta(18)O values in spring water were lower and more damped than those in precipitation. Nevertheless, a sinusoidal seasonal pattern was observed and used to estimate mean residence times of groundwater of around 2 years. Thus, in the high altitude plateau of the Cairngorms, shallow, coarse drift deposits form significant aquifers. At lower altitudes, deeper drift deposits, combined with larger catchment areas, increase mean groundwater residence times to >5 years. At high altitudes, the shallow, permeable nature of the drifts dictates that groundwater is vulnerable to impacts of environmental changes that could be usefully monitored at spring sites.
Soulsby, C., et al.2000Isotope hydrology of the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland: implications for hydrological pathways and residence timesHydrological Processes14747-7620885-608710.1002/(sici)1099-1085(200003)14:4<747::aid-hyp970>;2-0://WOS:000086247100007; hydrology of oxygen-18 (O-18) isotopes was monitored between 1995 and 1998 in the Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Precipitation (mean delta(18)O = -7.69 parts per thousand) exhibited strong seasonal variation in delta(18)O values over the study period, ranging from -2.47 parts per thousand in the summer to -20.93 parts per thousand in the winter months. As expected, such variation was substantially damped in stream waters, which had a mean and range of delta(18)O of -9.56 parts per thousand and -8.45 to -10.44 parts per thousand, respectively. Despite this, oxygen-is proved a useful tracer and streamwater delta(18)O variations could be explained in terms of a two-component mixing model, involving a seasonally variable delta(18)O signature in storm runoff, mixing with groundwater characterized by relatively stable delta(18)O levels. Variations in soil water delta(18)O implied the routing of depleted spring snowmelt and enriched summer rainfall into streamwaters, probably by near-surface hydrological pathways in peaty soils. The relatively stable isotope composition of baseflows is consistent with effective mixing processes in shallow aquifers at the catchment scale. Examination of the seasonal variation in delta(18)O levels in various catchment waters provided a first approximation of mean residence times in the major hydrological stores. Preliminary estimates are 0.2-0.8 years for near-surface soil water that contributes to storm runoff and 2 and > 5 years for shallow and deeper groundwater, respectively. These O-18 data sets provide further evidence that the influence of groundwater on the hydrology and hydrochemistry of upland catchments has been underestimated. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Soulsby, C.; Malcolm, R.; Malcolm, I.2000Groundwater in headwaters: Hydrological and ecological significanceGeological Society Special Publication18219-3403058719 (ISSN)10.1144/gsl.Sp.2000.182.01.03 hydrological and ecological significance of groundwater has generally been under-estimated in headwater catchment studies within the Celtic regions. The paper presents data from headwater catchments in both upland and lowland settings in northern Scotland to address this gap in our understanding. Research in the 10 km 2 Allt a' Mharcaidh catchment in the western Cairngorms has demonstrated that a range of groundwater sources in various drift deposits can account for c. 50% of annual runoff, even in a high altitude headwater stream. Despite the traditional assumption that upland catchments have limited aquifer storage, oxygen isotope studies of groundwater imply mean water residence times of up to five years which indicate a range of groundwater sources in montane environments. Moreover, hydrogeochemical reactions in the saturated zone appear to regulate stream water chemistry at moderate and low flows. In such montane environments, groundwater discharges at springs create unique wetland habitats which often form the source of headwater streams and affect riparian areas. In lowland catchments the hydrological significance of groundwater is equally important. In addition, recent studies in a salmon spawning stream in the Newmills Burn, Aberdeenshire has shown that aquifer-stream interactions in hyportheic zones are crucial in maintaining habitat conditions conducive to the survival of salmonid eggs, and the subsequent population of salmon streams. It is concluded that interdisciplinary studies incorporating hydrogeological investigations are fundamental to a proper understanding of the hydrology and functional ecology of catchment systems in the Celtic regions.
Soulsby, C., et al.2004Using tracers to upscale flow path understanding in mesoscale mountainous catchments: two examples from ScotlandJournal of Hydrology291174-1960022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.12.042://WOS:000221312700003; geochemical tracers were monitored over a hydrological year in the Feshie (231 km(2)) and Feugh (233 km(2)) catchments in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. The monitoring sought to assess the utility of tracers in upscaling flow path understanding in mesoscale catchments. A spatially and temporally nested sampling approach was adopted involving hydrochemical monitoring of sub-catchments ranging from 1 to 100 km2 in area. This allowed chemically-based hydrograph separations to be made and faciliated catchment-wide prediction of stream chemistry at a high and low flows. Differences in catchment geology were the main controls on baseflow chemistry, which was spatially variable in both catchments. However, acidic, organic soils produced the majority of storm runoff at all scales monitored, though its contribution was determined by the soil distributions of particular sub-catchments. Given the practical difficulties associated with comprehensive hydrometric monitoring at large spatial scales, it is argued that focused tracer studies can provide both an invaluable insight into the hydrological functioning of mesoscale catchments and a useful additional method for evaluating the structure and performance of distributed hydrological models. In addition, such tracer data provides important information on hydrological pathways that can aid catchment management. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.2008Towards simple approaches for mean residence time estimation in ungauged basins using tracers and soil distributionsJournal of Hydrology36360-740022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.10.001://WOS:000261845800005; the mean residence time (MRT) of water in catchments has been shown to be a useful descriptor of hydrological function and a valuable tool for inter-catchment comparisons. In this paper the conservative tracer chloride and digital soil maps are used to develop simplified approaches to estimating MRTs for 22 montane catchments with areas ranging from 1 km 2 to 293 km(2). The study was based in sub-catchments of the River Dee in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Previous work in this geomorphic province used stable isotopes to derive the MRTs of catchments which were found to be predictable from catchment soil characteristics. These relationships formed the basis for developing transferable approaches to estimating MRTs with two simplified methods. First, simple input-output relationships were used as a MRT surrogate based on the ratio of the normalised standard deviation of Cl in streamwater to that of precipitation (MRT(Cl)). Secondly, MRTs were predicted from the percentage coverage of hydrologically responsive soils using catchment soil maps derived from the UK hydrology of soil type (HOST) digital data base (MRT(soil)). The two approaches were shown to have broadly comparable results; though the ones derived from Cl data compared better with in dependently-derived estimates from isotopic (MRT(delta 18O)) data in five of the study catchments. Predictions were also improved by considering only riparian soil cover, presumably because this better represents the connectivity of responsive soils with channel networks or the ability of free-draining soils to damp the tracer response. The derived MRTs were also strongly correlated with mean catchment slope, indicating that in some geographical. locations, topographic maps atone may have utility in predicting residence times in ungauged basins. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Hrachowitz, M.2010Are transit times useful process-based tools for flow prediction and classification in ungauged basins in montane regions?Hydrological Processes241685-16960885-608710.1002/hyp.7578://WOS:000279821800011; times are being increasingly explored as process-based tools for conceptualizing hydrological function at a range of scales. Despite this, little effort has been made to relate transit times to conventional hydrometric flow statistics. Rather, the identification of the appropriate transit time distribution (TTD) for a hydrological system and the derivation of metrics such as the mean transit time (MTT) have required quantitative assessment of input-output relationships for conservative tracers using lumped parameter models. This has allowed the main landscape controls to be identified and has facilitated the prediction of MTTs in ungauged basins in particular geomorphic provinces, though relationships with streamflow measures have been unexamined. We used estimated MTTs (with uncertainty) for 16 experimental catchments (0.5-690 km(2) in area) with contrasting geologic, topographic, pedologic and climatic characteristics in Scotland. The MTT was highly variable ranging from 60 days to ca > 1500 days, reflecting differences in catchment soil cover, geomorphic properties and precipitation. The MTT was closely correlated with key hydrometric design statistics such as the mean annual flood (MAF) and percentiles of high (Q(5)) and low (Q(95)) flows. Analysis of MTT estimates, in conjunction with geographic information system (GIS)-based assessment of landscape controls, showed that MTT could be predicted to within 30% for ungauged basins from catchment soil cover and drainage density. Furthermore, hydrometric design statistics for ungauged basins could also be forecast from MTT predictions with median relative errors of 14, 11 and 28% for the MAF, Q(5) and Q(95) respectively. We suggest that MTTs-predicted from mapped landscape characteristics-can be useful diagnostic metrics for ungauged montane basins, as well as a useful similarity index for process-based catchment classification. This is important as montane headwaters are often critical, but data-poor environments influencing the quantity, quality and ecology of downstream flows. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Soulsby, C., et al.2006Runoff processes, stream water residence times and controlling landscape characteristics in a mesoscale catchment: An initial evaluationJournal of Hydrology325197-2210022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.10.024://WOS:000238776600013; studies, using Gran alkalinity and 6180, in nested sub-basins of the 230 km(2) Feshie catchment in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland, were used to characterise hydrology in terms of groundwater contributions to annual runoff and mean residence times. Relationships between these fundamental hydrological descriptors and catchment characteristics were explored with the use of a GIS. Catchment soil distribution-mapped by the UK's Hydrology Of Soil Type (HOST) digital data base-exerted the strongest influence on flow path partitioning and mean residence times. Smallest groundwater contributions (similar to 30-40%) and shortest residence times (similar to 2-5 months) were observed in catchments dominated by peat and/or shallow alpine soils and bedrock. Longer residence times (similar to 12-15 months) and greater groundwater contributions (similar to 45-55%) were observed in catchments dominated by more freely draining podzolic, sub-alpine and alluvial soils. These different subcatchment responses were integrated to give intermediate residence times (similar to 6 months) at the catchment outfall. The influence of catchment topography and scale appeared to be largely mediated by their influence on soil cover and distribution. The study illustrates the potential utility of integrating digital landscape analysis with tracer studies to understand the hydrological functioning of mesoscale catchments. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soulsby, C., et al.2007Inferring groundwater influences on surface water in montane catchments from hydrochemical surveys of springs and streamwatersJournal of Hydrology333199-2130022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.08.016://WOS:000244160900003; and emergent groundwaters; in springs and seeps were sampled over the 2003-2004 hydrological year in a geologically complex 31 km(2) catchment. Samples were analysed for Gran alkalinity and chloride; tracers that would respectively indicate the provenance and residence times of water. Streamwaters were sampled at the catchment outfall and in nine sub-catchments. Streamwater Gran alkalinity showed predictable fluctuations with flow, with high flows and baseflows exhibiting low and high alkalinity respectively. During storm flow conditions the nine monitoring points exhibited similar levels (0-50 mu eq l(-1)), whilst under baseflows alkalinity was highly variable (3001000 mu eq l(-1)), depending upon catchment geology. Comprehensive spatial surveys of springs and seeps in 6 of the sub-catchments during a typical summer low flow period revealed marked differences in groundwater chemistry. This broadly related to sub-catchment geology and geochemistry, but local variability implied marked differences in groundwater flow paths, residence times and geochemical reactions. Chloride data indicated a high degree of synchronicity between concentrations in precipitation and streamwaters. In contrast, concentrations in groundwaters were more consistent. This implies that Cl concentrations in the stream depend upon the relative contribution of groundwaters and soil waters where Cl concentrations are respectively more stable and more dynamic. In general, at the catchment scale, mean water residence times appear to be relatively short which appears to relate to the low permeability of soils and bedrock. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soulsby, C., et al.1997Reversibility of stream acidification in the Cairngorm region of ScotlandJournal of Hydrology195291-3110022-169410.1016/s0022-1694(96)03230-1://WOS:A1997XM20400015; 1984, stream chemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages have been monitored in 17 headwater streams which drain the Cairngorm region of Scotland. Three streams were considered to be acidified (mean pH < 6.0 and mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) < 25 mu eq l(-1)), 10 were acid-sensitive (pH < 6.8 and ANC < 150 mu eq l(-1)) and a further four were well-buffered (pH > 6.8, ANC > 150 mu eq l(-1)). The acidified streams had impoverished macroinvertebrate faunas. All of the streams have exhibited a decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations over the last decade in response to reduced sulphur deposition. In the more acidic and acid-sensitive systems this has generally been matched by a corresponding increase in ANC, There is also evidence of an increase in the pH of the most acidic streams, though no increased diversity or abundance of acid mayfly macroinvertebrate taxa species have been observed. Further reductions in deposition and longer time for a reversal of soil acidification appear to be necessary before greater biotic recovery can occur.
Soulsby, C., et al.1997Reversibility of surface water acidification in the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandWebb, B.Freshwater ContaminationWallingfordInt Assoc Hydrological Sciences15-261-901502-20-1://WOS:A1997BJ43H00002Chemical and biological characteristics of stream water quality have been monitored since 1984 in 17 headwater streams in the Cairngorm region of Scotland. Three streams are acidified (mean pH<6.0), 10 are acid-sensitive (pH < 6.8) and a further four are well-buffered (pH > 6.8). The acidified streams have impoverished macroinvertebrate faunas. All streams have exhibited a decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations over the last decade in response to reduced sulphur deposition. In the more acidic and acid-sensitive systems this has been matched by a corresponding increase in ANC. Although there is also evidence of an increase in the pH of the most acidic streams, no increased diversity or abundance of acid-sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa have been observed. Further reductions in deposition and longer time for the reversal of soil acidification appear necessary for greater biotic recovery to occur.
Soulsby, C., et al.1995Long-term trends in stream chemistry and biology in North-East Scotland: Evidence for recoveryWater, Air, & Soil PollutionKluwer Academic Publishers85689-69400496979 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00476909 1983 stream chemistry and macroinvertebrate ecology were monitored in ten streams draining the eastern Cairngorms. All streams have exhibited a decline in sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition; in the more acidic systems this has been reflected by a parallel increase in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). In some streams this coincides with an increase in the abundance of acid-sensitive mayflies which may provide evidence for biological recovery. In the most chronically acidified systems no increased abundance has been observed despite significant increases in ANC. This suggests that further reductions in deposition and sufficient time for a reversal of soil acidification is required before any biotic recovery occurs. (C) 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Speed, M., et al.2010Isotopic and geochemical tracers reveal similarities in transit times in contrasting mesoscale catchmentsHydrological Processes241211-12240885-608710.1002/hyp.7593://WOS:000277383000010; is a need for more isotopic tracer studies at the mesoscale to extend our understanding of catchment transit times and their associated controls beyond smaller experimental sites (typically < 10 km(2)). This paper, therefore, examines the isotope hydrology of six mesoscale (10(1)-10(2) km(2)) sub-catchments of the 2000 km(2) basin of the River Dee in northern Scotland. All the catchments were upland in character (mean altitude > 400 m) with similar suites of soil coverage (predominantly regosols, gleys, peats and podzols), although the relative distribution varied, as did the presence of other landscape features such as aquifers in Quaternary drifts and lakes. Input-output relationships of delta(18)O in precipitation and runoff revealed contrasting responses and differential damping which were broadly consistent with catchment characteristics. The mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated using a convolution integral with a Gamma distribution as the transfer function. These varied from 528 days in the most responsive catchments to > 800 days in catchments where the tracer signature was most damped. Shorter MTTs were found in sub-catchments with a higher percentage cover of responsive soils (i.e. regosols, gleys and peats), whilst sub-catchments with longest MTTs had a higher coverage of free-draining podzolic and alluvial soils, as well as significant amount of stored water either in fluvio-glacial aquifers or large lakes. The MTT of all six catchments had the same order of magnitude; this contrasts with studies in the Scottish Highlands with smaller (< 10 km(2)) catchments where MTT has been shown to vary between 60 and 1200 days. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stephens, W.E.; Halliday, A.N.1984Geochemical contrasts between late Caledonian granitoid plutons of northern, central and southern ScotlandTransactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences75259-27302635933 (ISSN)10.1017/s0263593300013894 major- and trace-element data for granitoid plutons from the Grampian Highlands, the Midland Valley and the Southern Uplands of Scotland are presented and discussed. The study is restricted to ‘late granitoids’ (all younger than 430 Ma); the term ‘granitoid’ is used in a wide sense to encompass all plutonic components of a zoned intrusion of this age, sometimes including diorites and ultrabasic cumulate rocks. The data indicate that as a whole the province is chemically high-K calc-alkalic. Other notable enrichments are in Sr and Ba, and a marked geographical difference in these trace-elements is found between plutons of the SW Grampian Highlands and those of the Southern Highlands, the Midland Valley, and the Southern Uplands. Plutons of the NE Highlands tend to be more geochemically evolved than those further SW and those of the Midland Valley and Southern Uplands. When petrographical and geochemical data are considered, three plutonic suites are recognised: (1) the Cairngorm suite comprising plutons of the NE Highlands, (2) the Argyll suite comprising plutons from the SW Highlands, and (3) the S of Scotland suite comprising plutons from the Southern Highlands, Midland Valley and the Southern Uplands excluding Criffell and the Cairnsmore of Fleet. It is proposed that the more acidic granitoids are dominantly the products of I-type crustal sources, but certain diorites and the more basic members of zoned plutons have a substantial mantle component. The elevated Sr and Ba levels in granitoids of the Argyll suite may reflect the influence of incompatible-element-rich fluids from the mantle in the petrogenesis of this suite. The relatively anhydrous pyroxene-mica diorites of the S of Scotland suite are richer in Ni and Cr and appear to represent mantle-derived melts. The relationships between these data and already published isotopic data are discussed. (C) 1984, Royal Society of Edinburgh. All rights reserved.
Stephenson, D., et al.2013The Dalradian rocks of the north-east Grampian Highlands of ScotlandProceedings of the Geologists Association124318-3920016-787810.1016/j.pgeola.2012.07.011://WOS:000314615600007; north-east Grampian Highlands, as described here, are bounded to the north-west by the Grampian Group outcrop of the northern Grampian Highlands and to the south by the Southern Highland Group outcrop in the Highland Border region. The Dalradian succession therefore encompasses the whole of the Appin and Argyll groups, but also includes an extensive outlier of Southern Highland Group strata in the north of the region. The succession includes shallow-marine sequences, glacigenic deposits at two stratigraphical levels, the earliest evidence for volcanism in the Dalradian, a later major development of basaltic and picritic sub-marine lavas, and thick turbiditic sequences. In the south, the Grampian-Appin group boundary is a high-strain zone, with no obvious dislocation or stratigraphical excision, which was formerly termed the Boundary Slide. Shear-zones at higher structural levels are associated with pre-tectonic granites, such as the Ben Vuirich Granite, which have been dated at c. 600 Ma and hence place limits on the timing of sedimentation, deformation and metamorphism. The region is divided from north to south by a major zone of shearing and dislocation with associated igneous intrusions, termed the Portsoy Lineament. To the west of the lineament, the stratigraphy is more-or-less continuous along strike with that of the central Grampian Highlands. D1, D2 and D3 structures extend from the Tummel Steep Belt north-eastwards throughout this area. The stratigraphical succession is broadly continuous across the Portsoy Lineament but to the east, in the Buchan Block, correlations are more tenuous and do not extend below subgroup level. High-grade migmatitic paragneisses were once interpreted as pre-Dalradian basement but they are now assigned to the Crinan Subgroup, within the Dalradian succession. Within the Buchan Block the outcrop pattern is controlled by two broad, open, post-metamorphic folds, the Turriff Syncline and the Buchan Anticline. The Buchan Block is the international type area for the high-temperature/low-pressure Buchan-type regional metamorphism. To the south and west, this passes into higher pressure Barrovian-type metamorphism. South of Deeside, metamorphic conditions reached 820 degrees C and over 8 kbar, well into granulite facies and the highest recorded in the Grampian Terrane. The detailed relationship between the high heat-flow and the emplacement of large bodies of basic and silicic magma is a matter of ongoing research. Plutons of the north-east Grampian Basic Suite, emplaced at c. 474-470 Ma, during or shortly after the peak of metamorphism and the D3 deformation, provide key evidence for the timing of the Grampian orogenic event. (c) 2012 Natural Environment Research Council. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Geologists' Association. All rights reserved.
Stockdale, A.; Barker, A.2009Sustainability and the multifunctional landscape: An assessment of approaches to planning and management in the Cairngorms National ParkLand Use Policy26479-4920264-837710.1016/j.landusepol.2008.07.001://WOS:000262217500032; Scotland contains some of Britain's most prized areas of natural heritage value. However, although such areas may appear both 'wild' and 'remote', these are typically working landscapes which symbolise the interdependence of nature and society. The complexity of this relationship means that management responses will need to address a multitude of potentially conflicting priorities whilst at the same time ensuring that sufficient social and institutional capital exists to allow for the promotion of landscape integrity. The introduction of national parks to Scotland in the form of the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000 allows for a high-level of protection for designated areas in upland Scotland. Yet, whilst the recent Act Outlines the statutory purpose and direction national parks should take, it allows a significant degree of flexibility in the way in which the Act may be implemented. This level of discretion allows for significant local distinctiveness within the model but also raises questions about the potential effectiveness of chosen responses. In order to assess the potential implications of a model rooted in self-determination, we provide a case Study review of the institutional basis of the Cairngorms National Park along with an assessment of the strategic character of the first National Park Plan. It is argued that whilst the Cairngorms National Park Authority has developed a significant level of stakeholder engagement, the authority may struggle to bridge the policy-implementation gap. Although a number of shortcomings are identified, particular concerns relate to the potential mismatch between strategic ambition and local level capacity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoffelen, A.; Vanneste, D.2016Institutional (Dis)integration and Regional Development Implications of Whisky Tourism in Speyside, ScotlandScandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism1642-601502-225010.1080/15022250.2015.1062416://WOS:000365586600003; positioning tourism in regional socio-economic contexts and development plans is regularly seen by researchers as a prerequisite to practically unfold tourism-related regional development potential. However, conceptual elaboration and additional empirical evidence are still needed to gain a more critical understanding of this notion. Therefore, the objective of this research is to explore tourism-related delivery mechanisms for regional development by focusing on the role of tourism in larger region-building processes. Using an in-depth interview-based case study on the supply and policy of whisky tourism in Speyside (Scotland), we found that the mode of commodification and institutionalisation of whisky tourism in Speyside provides an unstable basis for reaching destination-wide regional development aims. Despite high-profile regional branding, the regional institutionalisation provides barriers for local stakeholders to integrate in destination management processes. Networking vehicles with multi-scalar actions are necessary to foster empowerment of local stakeholders and to facilitate regional integration of stakeholder interests. We conclude that an integrative position of tourism in the region-building process of destinations, facilitated by the mode of multi-scalar commodification and institutionalisation of territorial resources in the destination, is central for reaching tourism-induced regional development aims.
Stratigos, M.J.; Noble, G.2014Crannogs, castles and lordly residences: New research and dating of crannogs in north-east ScotlandProceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of ScotlandSociety of Antiquaries of Scotland144205-22200811564 (ISSN) article outlines new research into the crannogs of north-east Scotland and dating of two crannogs in Loch Kinord, Upper Deeside, Aberdeenshire. The dating of the crannogs in Loch Kinord represents the first direct dating evidence for crannogs in the north-east of Scotland and indicates construction episodes at these crannogs in the last centuries of the first millennium ad. The radiocarbon dates, alongside various historic records, suggest that crannogs, including Castle Island in Loch Kinord, may have been significant nodes within early medieval landscapes of power in eastern Scotland.
Sugden, D.; Ward, R.1980Mountains in the makingGeographical Magazine52425-426 to accompany the articles on 'Conflict in the Cairngorms' in the same issue this article briefly describes the evolution of the landforms of the Cairngorms. These are chiefly the products of fluvial erosion followed by intense glaciation, and are still evolving under one of the most severe climatic regimes in Britain. -Eileen Turner
Sugden, D.E.1969The age and form of corries in the CairngormsScottish Geographical Magazine8534-4600369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369226908736110;;
Sugden, D.E.1970Landforms of deglaciation in Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers201-+0020-275410.2307/621770://WOS:A1970Y093900011;
Sugden, D.E.1980The Loch Lomond Advance in the Cairngorms - replyScottish Geographical Magazine9618-190036-922510.1080/00369228008736451://WOS:A1980JR74600002;;
Sugden, D.E.1980The Loch Lomond advance in the Cairngorms (A reply to J. B. Sissons)Scottish Geographical Magazine961800369225 (ISSN)10.1080/00369228008736451;;
Sutherland, L.A.2010Environmental grants and regulations in strategic farm business decision-making: A case study of attitudinal behaviour in ScotlandLand Use Policy27415-4230264-837710.1016/j.landusepol.2009.06.003://WOS:000273110500035; paper addresses the question of farmer responses to agri-environmental programming in light of the Single Farm Payment, focusing on the role of environmental regulations and grant schemes in strategic farm decision-making. Utilising Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour in a qualitative case study of farmers in Upper Deeside, Scotland, it was found that farmer respondents actively consider environmental regulations and grant opportunities as part of their decision rationale in making investments in farm development, such as agro-industrial building construction or securing additional land. Fulfilling agri-environmental regulations is constructed by respondents as being part of ensuring farm viability. while eligibility for agri-environmental schemes is impacting on how tenanted land is valued. The author identifies three mechanisms facilitating farmer up-take of environmental schemes, and makes a case for consideration of farmers as experts in producing environmental outcomes while maintaining economic sustainability of farming operations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sutherland, L.A.; Burton, R.J.2011Good farmers, good neighbours? The role of cultural capital in social capital development in a Scottish farming communitySociologia Ruralis51238-25500380199 (ISSN)10.1111/j.1467-9523.2011.00536.x decades have seen a gradual erosion of farming incomes across the UK due to falling commodity prices and changes to the subsidy regime. This study examines what resources farmers are able to access informally and how this 'social capital' is generated and maintained in farming communities. Using a conceptual framework based on Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social and cultural capital, this study explores the evolving informal exchange relationships between farmers in a case study of Upper Deeside, Scotland. We find that although cultural capital is important for accessing social capital, the technological treadmill characteristic of 'good farming' creates a disincentive for informally sharing machinery amongst large-scale farmers. However, social capital remains an important resource for smaller scale farmers, particularly in terms of their access to labour. We conclude by suggesting that, far from being a low-cost means of facilitating community economic development, increasing the level of social capital will be difficult in communities where labour is a scarce or expensive resource. (C) 2011 The Authors. Sociologia Ruralis (C) 2011 European Society for Rural Sociology.
Taylor, K.1991Land, wildlife and conservation in the CairngormsBritish Wildlife2152-16109580956 (ISSN) rivers, valley wetlands and the Caledonian pinewoods are described first, before looking in general terms at the birchwoods, heathlands and the alpine zone of the Cairngorms. Threats from red deer Cervus elaphus damage to pine Pinus sylvestris and birch Betula saplings and increasing human impacts since the 1940s are reviewed, concentrating on recent issue of proposals for expansion of skiing facilities. -J.W.Cooper
Taylor, S.1995Pinewood restoration at the RSPB's Abernethy Forest ReserveAldhous, J.R.Our pinewood heritage. Proc. conference, Inverness, 1994Forestry Commission/RSPB/SNH145-154 RSPB reserve at Abernethy, 12 450 ha of land situated on the northern slopes of the Cairngorms, comprises the largest surviving remnant of native pinewood in Scotland. The paper describes current work at the site. The management plan for the area is outlined. Woodland restoration work being carried out is then indicated: removal of exotic species; and management of 60-100, 20-60, and under 20-yr-old Scots pine Pinus sylvestris plantations. Other topics discussed are: deer fencing; ploughing and drainage; access tracks; and the control of grazing levels. -S.R.Harris
Tennant, D.J.; Rich, T.C.G.2002Distribution maps and IUCN threat categories for Hieracium section Alpina (Asteraceae) in BritainEdinburgh Journal of Botany59351-37209604286 (ISSN)10.10m/s0960428602000215 maps and IUCN threat categories for the 30 named species of Hieracium section Alpina (Asteraceae) in Britain are given, based on taxonomic and distribution studies by D.J. Tennant and others over the last 30 years. Twenty-seven taxa are endemic to Scotland, one to England, one to Britain and one also occurs in mainland Europe and the Arctic. There are three main centres of diversity in Scotland: the Eastern Highlands (especially the Cairngorm Mountains), the Western Highlands and the Northern Highlands. Under the IUCN threat categories, seven taxa are Critically Endangered, seven are Endangered, two are Vulnerable, ten are Near Threatened and seven are Nationally Scarce. The main threats are collecting, natural events such as rock falls and avalanches, global warming, acid rain, over-grazing and tourism. There is particular concern for the long-term survival of four taxa.
Tetzlaff, D.; Laudon, H.2010Dissolved organic carbon in northern catchments and understanding hydroclimatic controlsEos9120000963941 (ISSN)10.1029/2010eo220005; Watershed Ecosystem Response to Climate Change (North-Watch)Workshop II: Hydrological Regulation of Stream DOC in Northern Catchments; Vindeln, Sweden, 11-15 April 2010; Predicting the integrated consequences of climate change on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water resources is a difficult area of interdisciplinary environmental science. Fortunately, in many areas, research catchments have been established that provide the best longer-term data sets that encompass integrated measurement of the linkages between the climate, hydrology, biogeochemistry, and ecology of river systems and how these are being affected by climatic change. North-Watch is an interdisciplinary intersite comparison project funded by the Leverhulme Trust, in London, and run by the Northern Rivers Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. It aims to analyze long-term data from experimental catchments including sensitive boreal, subarctic, and subalpine environments ranging from the Yukon to northern Sweden to the Scottish Cairngorms. The goal is to assess the integrated physical, chemical, and biological response to climatic change.
Tetzlaff, D.; Seibert, J.; Soulsby, C.2009Inter-catchment comparison to assess the influence of topography and soils on catchment transit times in a geomorphic province; the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandHydrological Processes231874-18860885-608710.1002/hyp.7318://WOS:000267321400005; quantitative, process relevant analysis of ten mesoscale (ca 10-90 km(2)) catchments in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland was carried out using 10-m digital terrain models (DTMs). This analysis produced a range of topographic indices that described differences in the landscape organisation of the catchments in a way that helped explain contrasts in their hydrology. Mean transit time (MTT)-derived from isotopic tracer data-was used as a metric that characterised differences in the hydrological function of the ten catchments. Some topographic indices exhibited significant correlations with MTT. Most notably, the ratio of the median flow path length to the median flow path gradient was negatively correlated with MTT, whilst the median upslope area was positively correlated. However, the relationships exhibited significant scatter which precluded their use as a predictive tool that could be applied to ungauged basins in this region. In contrast, maps of soil hydrological properties could be used to differentiate hydrologically responsive soils (which are dominated by overland flow and shallow sub-surface storm flow) from free draining soils (that facilitate deeper sub-surface flows). MTT was negatively correlated with the coverage of responsive soils in catchments. This relationship provided a much better basis for predicting MTT in ungauged catchments in this geomorphic province. In the Cairngorms, the extensive cover of various glacial drift deposits appears to be a first order control on soil distributions and strongly influences the porosity and permeability of the sub-surface. These catchment characteristics result in soil cover being a much more discerning indicator of hydrological function than topography alone. The study highlights the potential of quantitative landscape analysis in catchment comparison and the need for caution in extrapolating relationships between landscape controls and metrics of hydrological function beyond specific geomorphic provinces. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.2011Hydroecological responses to climate change in Northern catchmentsEos926600963941 (ISSN)10.1029/2011eo080014; Watershed Ecosystem Response to Climate Change (North-Watch) Workshop III: Hydroecological Responses to Climate Change in Northern Catchments; Aviemore, United Kingdom, 29 August to 2 September 2010; North-Watch is an interdisciplinary intersite comparison project funded by the Leverhulme Trust, United Kingdom, and run by the Northern Rivers Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. The overall aim of the North-Watch project is to facilitate an intercatchment comparison study of high-latitude catchments that will yield a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and regional understanding of the recent effects of climatic change and provide a stronger scientific basis for predicting what further changes are likely. Examining a range of sites across a climatic transect in the northern zone will give a much stronger regional perspective on the responses to climatic change than individual studies alone. The project is analyzing long-term data from experimental catchments including sensitive boreal, sub-Arctic, and sub-Alpine environments ranging from the Yukon and northern Sweden to the Scottish Cairngorms to assess the integrated physical, chemical, and biological response to climatic change.
Tetzlaff, D., et al.2011Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchmentsJournal of Hydrology400438-4470022-169410.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.01.053://WOS:000289596800015; variation of delta O-18 was measured over 2 years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km(2)) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and hydrologically responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km(2)) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland (i.e. < 300 m altitude) in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km(2)) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils recharging significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km(2)) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar delta O-18 variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan > Don > North Esk > Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months-4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation between soil cover and MTT remains. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tetzlaff, D., et al.2007Conceptualization of runoff processes using a geographical information system and tracers in a nested mesoscale catchmentHydrological Processes211289-13070885-608710.1002/hyp.6309://WOS:000246405700004; investigations were combined with a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of the 31 km(2) Girnock catchment (Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland) in order to understand hydrological functioning by identifying dominant runoff sources and estimating mean residence times. The catchment has a complex geology, soil cover and topography. Gran alkalinity was used to demonstrate that catchment geology has a dominant influence on baseflow chemistry, but flow paths originating in acidic horizons in the upper soil profiles controlled stormflow alkalinity. Chemically based hydrograph separations at the catchment scale indicated that similar to 30% of annual runoff was derived from groundwater sources. Similar contributions (23-36%) were estimated for virtually all major sub-basins. delta(18)O of precipitation (mean: -9.4%o; range: -16.1 to -5.0%) and stream waters (mean: -9.1%; range: -11.6 to -7.4%) were used to assess mean catchment and sub-basin residence times, which were in the order similar to 4-6 months. GIS analysis showed that these tracer-based diagnostic features of catchment functioning were consistent with the landscape organization of the catchment. Soil and HOST (Hydrology of Soil Type) maps indicated that the catchment and individual sub-basins were dominated by hydrologically responsive soils, such as peats (Histosol), peaty gleys (Histic Gleysols) and rankers (Umbric Leptosols and Histosols). Soil cover (in combination with a topographic index) predicted extensive areas of saturation that probably expand during hydrological events, thus providing a high degree of hydrological connectivity between catchment hillslopes and stream channel network. This was validated by aerial photographic interpretation and groundtruthing. These characteristics of hydrological functioning (i.e. dominance of responsive hydrological pathways and short residence times) dictate that the catchment is sensitive to land use change impacts on the quality and quantity of streamflows. It is suggested that such conceptualization of hydrological functioning using tracer-validated GIS analysis can play an important role in the sustainable management of river basins. Copyright (C) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thompson, I.P.; Blackwood, I.L.; Davies, T.D.1987The effect of polluted and leached snow melt waters on the soil bacterial community-quantitative responseEnvironmental Pollution43143-15402697491 (ISSN)10.1016/0269-7491(87)90072-8; effect of polluted snow melt waters on the number of soil bacteria was determined using soil cores extracted from an upland catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Total numbers of viable heterotrophic bacteria and bacterial denitrifiers were determined using plate and MPN counts. Separate soil cores were treated with simulated melt waters representative of either the composition of the first melt fraction from polluted or leached snowpacks. The number of bacteria in the Ah soil horizon (Hodgson, 1974) treated with polluted snow melt (PSM) water decreased significantly by 28-fold, but increased by 11-fold in the BC horizon. Denitrifier numbers decreased by 8-fold in the Ah horizon, but increased by over 2-fold lower down the profile. Overall the bacterial community exposed to simulated leached snow melt (LSM) waters showed little change in the Ah horizon. In the BC horizon (Hodgson, 1974), total viable bacterial numbers decreased by 20-fold, but denitrifiers numbers were unaffected. (C) 1987.
Thompson, N.2006The practice of government in a devolved Scotland: the case of the designation of the Cairngorms National ParkEnvironment and Planning C-Government and Policy24459-4720263-774X10.1068/c50m://WOS:000238964400009Proponents of devolution have argued that devolved governing leads to enhanced democratisation. This democratisation process is argued to be the result both of new governance structures and of new practices of governing which produce a new, more democratic, politics. The case of Scottish devolution is one example of where constitutional change was constructed as heralding a 'new politics. This proposition is analysed through a specific policy intervention in the devolved Scotland-the designation of a national park in the Cairngorms. This designation is traced from the instigation of national parks legislation to the formal creation of the park. The claim that devolution can bring about a more open and participatory approach to governing is critiqued. It is proposed that, although democratisation has a formed a political rationality of devolution, the actual practices of governing owe more to traditional rationalities of managerialism.
Thomson, D.L.1994Growth and development in dotterel chicks charadrius morinellusBird Study4161-6700063657 (ISSN)10.1080/00063659409477198; development of Dotterel was examined at a site in the Cairngorms of Scotland during 1990. Rates and patterns of development of 5 standard measurements-head-and-bill-length, bill-length, tarsus-and-toe, wing-length, and weight-were consistent with other waders. Conventional growth models were fitted to the data to produce quantitative measures of both maximum developmental rate and final dimensions, suitable for comparisons with other studies and other species. Growth of bill-length and head-and-bill-length showed more rapid initial development than other biometrics. Loss of weight after hatching was observed. Chicks dying did not show slower developmental rates that those which survived, nor was there any evidence that they were the chicks of lower quality parents. Unpredictable harsh weather may have an important but largely random influence on Dotterel chicks in this area. (C) 1994 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Tickell, O.1994Lairds lobby threatens plan for CairngormsNew Scientist14412-120262-4079://WOS:A1994PT62200013
Tranter, M., et al.1986The composition of snowfall, snowpack and meltwater in the Scottish highlands-evidence for preferential elutionAtmospheric Environment (1967)20517-52500046981 (ISSN)10.1016/0004-6981(86)90092-2; snows in a small, remote, high-altitude snowpack in the Cairngorms, Scotland, give rise to meltwaters which are proportionally rich in sulphate and nitrate. As a consequence, the within-pack snows become proportionally rich in chloride, even though depleted in solute. Preferential elution appears to be a major process in the chemical evolution of snowfall and snowpack. (C) 1986.
Treasurer, J.W.; Owen, R.; Bowers, E.1992The population dynamics of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, in a simple predator-prey systemEnvironmental Biology of FishesKluwer Academic Publishers3465-7803781909 (ISSN)10.1007/bf00004785; population dynamics and predator-prey relationship of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, were examined in simple fish communities in two adjacent shallow lakes, Lochs Kinord and Davan, Deeside, Scotland. Few perch survive to age 3 but Z is low for fish > 3 years and perch live up to 17 years. Population fecundity remained relatively high and constant in perch because of the multi-age spawning stock and the presence of older more fecund perch. Growth rates of perch in both lochs are relatively high as a consequence of low stock abundance. The N, B, and P of adult perch were unusually low. The age range of pike, and N, B, P, and growth were in the range of values reported elsewhere. There was little variation in the strength of pike year classes and the importance of cannibalism and low occurrence of alternative prey in the lochs suggest that the populations were self-regulating. Cannibalism by adults was responsible for most of mortality in perch larvae, and predation by pike and adult perch was responsible for the majority of juvenile losses. This conclusion is supported by the high biomass ratios of pike:juvenile perch of 1.0-30.8. While the number of adult fish was almost equal, the biomass of adult pike was 2-3 × that of perch in Kinord and 6 × in Davan. In L. Kinord, where year class strength was stable, high predation pressure from perch and pike reduced perch abundance rather than eliminated year classes. Perch year classes fluctuated in abundance in L. Davan and were eliminated in the first summer in two sampling years. The pike, and particularly the perch populations, have features characteristic of fish communities in unperturbed ecosystems: namely, a wide range of age classes, stability in biomass with variation dampened by longevity, and low production. (C) 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Turnpenny, J.2016Missing the expected in the Cairngorms, 1 July 2015Weather7118-190043-165610.1002/wea.2568://WOS:000368134100013; short article describes an experience of the weather in the Cairngorms on the exceptionally hot day of 1 July 2015. Prepared for the unexpected heat and dryness, we missed the obvious forecast thunderstorms. It is intended as a talking point and contribution from lived experience to add to discussion of that unusual day, rather than a technical meteorological analysis.
Valles, D.; Apple, M.E.; Andrews, C.2018Visual Simulations Correlate Plant Functional Trait Distribution with Elevation and Temperature in the Cairngorm Mountains of ScotlandTinetti, F.G., et al.2017 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2017Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.1252-12589781538626528 (ISBN)10.1109/csci.2017.220; work demonstrates the utilization of R and the interactive Shiny application in RStudio to visualize and simulate changes in alpine plant and functional trait distribution in correlation with temperature data. In the RAPT (Researching Alpine Plant Traits) project, we collected field data on species and trait distribution along an elevational gradient of Sgòran Dubh Mòr in Scotland's Cairngorm Mountains. Visualization of the data were plotted onto Google Maps in Shiny to represent plant trait data evaluated with temperature data. Visual and interactive R Shiny models are valuable in illustrating and predicting the effects of temperature change on alpine plants. (C) 2017 IEEE.
Van Leeuwen, E.2014Simulating the expenditures of Scottish households: A two-step microsimulation approach to the Cairngorms National ParkNew Pathways in MicrosimulationAshgate Publishing Ltd233-2489781409469322 (ISBN); 9781409469315 (ISBN)
van Leeuwen, E.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nijkamp, P.2016Microsimulation and interregional input-output modelling as tools for multi-level policy analysisEnvironment and Planning C-Government and Policy34135-1500263-774X10.1177/0263774x15614720://WOS:000369063400010This article addresses the differentiated impacts of various sectors and branches in a multi-layer spatial system. The key question is whether in an interdependent spatial system - comprising a local, regional and national component - one or more core industries or sectors can be identified that may act as strategic handles for long-range sustainable development of a local economy. As a case study, the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland is used. In this area, policy makers - at different administrative levels - strongly emphasize the need for new sustainable economic development. We use a novel combination of stakeholder analysis (with household questionnaires) and multi-level interregional input-output analysis to identify which critical local key sectors are acting as carriers for local sustainability. The methodological vehicle employed in our study is based on microsimulation, as a tool to cope with limited data availability. This paper demonstrates how, even for small areas such as the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland, survey information combined with secondary data and existing input-output tables can be integrated into a useful policy toolbox for local sustainable development in a broader regional-national context.
Vergunst, J.; Geisler, C.; Stedman, R.2012Nature conservation and environmental management: Working landscapes in Adirondack Park, US, and Cairngorms National Park, UKRural Transformations and Rural Policies in the US and UKTaylor and Francis233-2529780203144275 (ISBN)10.4324/9780203144275
Viglia, S., et al.2011Resource use and biophysical constraints of Scottish agricultureEcological QuestionsNicolaus Copernicus University1557-6916447298 (ISSN)10.2478/v10090-011-0036-1; is a fundamental sector of economy and society that ensures food supply, classified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment among the so-called "provisioning ecosystem services". Due to the increase of food demand worldwide, farmers are shifting more and more towards intensive agriculture. This trend is connected to the unsustainable consumption of natural resources, most often exceeding the carrying capacity of natural ecosystems. In this paper, the resource use and biophysical constraints of Scottish agriculture were investigated at regional and national levels by means of the Emergy Synthesis method. The study focused on two main agroecosystems: 1) the Cairngorms National Park (CNP) and 2) the national agricultural sector of Scotland as a whole. The evolution of the agricultural sector was explored over time (years 1991, 2001, 2007), accounting for local renewable and non-renewable resources as well as imported resources. Performance and sustainability indicators were then calculated with and without including human labor and economic services (money flows). In the year 2007, the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) of the Scottish agricultural sector was about 46% of the same indicator calculated for the CNP (2.65 versus 5.72, respectively). A higher Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR) was calculated for the national sector than for CNP (1.25 versus 1.02, respectively). The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) was 2.12 for the national sector and 5.60 for CNP. Such figures were calculated without including the emergy flows supporting labor and services. If the latter are also accounted for, the ESI of the national level and CNP drop by a factor 5.6 and 3.9, respectively. Such variations suggest that larger flows of non-renewable resources strongly affect the environmental performance, increasing the dependence on non-renewable resources supporting the larger economic system in which the agricultural sectors are embedded in.
Vittoz, P., et al.2010Reproducibility of species lists, visual cover estimates and frequency methods for recording high-mountain vegetationJournal of Vegetation Science211035-10471100-923310.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01216.x://WOS:000283600000004; When multiple observers record the same spatial units of alpine vegetation, how much variation is there in the records and what are the consequences of this variation for monitoring schemes to detect changes? Location One test summit in Switzerland (Alps) and one test summit in Scotland (Cairngorm Mountains). Method Eight observers used the GLORIA protocols for species composition and visual cover estimates in percentages on large summit sections (> 100 m2) and species composition and frequency in nested quadrats (1 m2). Results The multiple records from the same spatial unit for species composition and species cover showed considerable variation in the two countries. Estimates of pseudo-turnover of composition and coefficients of variation of cover estimates for vascular plant species in 1 m x 1-m quadrats showed less variation than in previously published reports, whereas our results in larger sections were broadly in line with previous reports. In Scotland, estimates for bryophytes and lichens were more variable than for vascular plants. Conclusions Statistical power calculations indicated that unless large numbers of plots were used, changes in cover or frequency were only likely to be detected for abundant species (exceeding 10% cover) or if relative changes were large (50% or more). Lower variation could be reached with the point method and with larger numbers of small plots. However, as summits often strongly differ from each other, supplementary summits cannot be considered as a way of increasing statistical power without introducing a supplementary component of variance into the analysis and hence into the power calculations.
Walker, A.F.2007Stream spawning of Arctic charr in ScotlandEcology of Freshwater Fish1647-530906-669110.1111/j.1600-0633.2006.00164.x://WOS:000244003500008; is a stronghold for Arctic charr, with about 200 freshwater, wholly loch-resident populations, most of which have yet to be studied. To date, no anadromous populations or individual sea-run charr, have been reported. In Scotland, most Arctic charr spawn in stillwater, during autumn and early winter (September to January), with only one population spawning in spring. Spawning in running water does occur, but has been regarded as rare. This paper examines the status of stream spawning of charr in Scotland, describing instances from 10 populations, although two of these are now extinct. Most stream-spawning charr migrate relatively short distances to running water and construct redds in gently flowing water. The longest recorded migration occurs in Loch Insh, Speyside, with fish travelling 15 km within the River Spey. Information on the extent of stream spawning is essential to help conserve the rich phenotypic and genetic diversity of our remaining charr populations.
Walker, S.2001Balancing social, economic and environmental pressures through integrated river basin management in the Cairngorm Mountains of northeast ScotlandMarino, M.A.; Simonovic, S.P.Integrated Water Resources ManagementWallingfordInt Assoc Hydrological Sciences45-501-901502-71-6://WOS:000177182900007The rivers of the Cairngorms area are of great importance from an environmental, social and economic perspective. Opportunities have been identified to improve management of the rivers. This has been achieved through consultation and consensus building with key governmental and nongovernmental organizations and special interest groups. The need for a sustainable and integrated strategy for the management of the rivers across the whole geographical area of the Cairngorms area is demonstrated. This is a significant departure from previous management regimes which tended to be largely sectoral, localized and fragmented in approach.
Walker, S.2001Opportunities for balancing conflicting economic, social and environmental pressures on river basins through an integrated approach with stakeholder involvementSchumann, A.H., et al.Regional Management of Water ResourcesWallingfordInt Assoc Hydrological Sciences175-1821-901502-51-1://WOS:000172971700021Traditionally, within Scotland, the fragmented nature of legislation and organizational structures relating to river basin management has led to a largely sectoral and localized approach to planning and management. There is an increasing impetus for a more strategic and integrated approach, not least because of the imminent introduction of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive that will give river basin management planning a statutory basis and will require stakeholder and community participation. A strategic approach to catchment management is therefore new to Scotland, particularly when it is addressed through community and stakeholder involvement. Three case studies in northeast Scotland are used to highlight the way in which key catchment management issues and the potential for enhanced strategic management have been identified by consultation and consensus building.
Ward, R.G.W.1980Avalanche hazard in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Glaciology2631-410022-1430://WOS:A1980LC30800004
Ward, R.G.W.1984Avalanche prediction in Scotland: I. A survey of avalanche activityApplied Geography491-10801436228 (ISSN)10.1016/0143-6228(84)90016-x; are a common occurrence throughout the Scottish Highlands and have been responsible for several injuries and deaths amongst climbers and ramblers. The paper describes approximately 1000 avalanches which have been recorded over the last 200 years, the majority being observed in the Cairngorms between the winters of 1977-1978 and 1979-1980. Many different types of avalanche have been recorded, including slab avalanches and loose snow avalanches. Although the majority are comparatively small, a small proportion are extremely large. These may travel over a mile and involve a snow layer up to two or three metres thick and 200-300 m wide. Excluding small-scale sluffing from free faces, most avalanches release from slopes between 35° and 45°. Avalanche activity occurs during many different types of weather conditions, including thaws, cold snaps, storms and calm conditions. (C) 1984.
Ward, R.G.W.; Langmuir, E.D.G.; Beattie, B.1985Snow profiles and avalanche activity in the Cairngorm mountains, ScotlandJournal of Glaciology3118-270022-143010.3189/s0022143000004949://WOS:A1985AGG7400003;
Warren, C.2002Of superquarries and mountain railways: Recurring themes in Scottish environmental conflictScottish Geographical Journal118101-1270036-922510.1080/00369220218737140://WOS:000180955000003; proposals in areas with renowned natural heritage frequently stir up environmental controversy. In recent years, the Scottish Highlands and Islands have seen two particularly high-profile conflicts of this type: the proposals for an aggregates superquarry on Harris and for a funicular mountain railway in the Cairngorm ski area. The first was turned down, the second has gone ahead. These showdowns between development and conservation interests shared characteristics which typify environmental conflicts: tension between 'insiders' and 'outsiders', polarised viewpoints, contrasting interpretations of sustainable development, criticism of the planning system and disagreement over decision making procedures. This paper explores these themes through detailed considerations of the two specific debates and of the arguments that were fielded to support or oppose the projects.
Warren, G., et al.2018Little House in the Mountains? A small Mesolithic structure from the Cairngorm Mountains, ScotlandJournal of Archaeological Science-Reports18936-9452352-409X10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.11.021://WOS:000430788500087; paper describes a small Mesolithic structure from the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Excavations at Caochanan Ruadha identified a small oval structure (c. 3 m x 2.2 m) with a central fire setting, in an upland valley (c.540 m asl). The site was occupied at c. 8200 cal BP and demonstrates hunter-gatherer use of the uplands during a period of significant climatic deterioration. The interpretation of the structure is primarily based on the distribution of the lithic assemblage, as the heavily podsolised soils have left no trace of light structural features. The lithic assemblage is specialised, dominated by microlith fragments, and functional analysis has identified different uses of different areas inside the structure. The identification of small, specialised Mesolithic sites is unusual and this paper will discuss the evidence for the presence of the structure and its use, compare it to other Mesolithic structures in Britain and highlight some methodological implications.
Watson, A.1976Food remains in droppings of foxes (Vulpes-vulpes) in CairngormsJournal of Zoology180495-4960952-8369://WOS:A1976CM61700005
Watson, A.1976Human impact on animal populations in the cairngormsLandscape Research114-1501426397 (ISSN)10.1080/01426397608705805;;
Watson, A.1980Conflict in the Cairngorms: policies for protectionGeographical Magazine52427-433 statistical material in graphic form as background to the discussion of possible options for reconciling the needs of conservation with the development interests. The area is unique in containing the largest area of arctic-alpine flora in the country and substantial tracts of semi-natural pine and birch forest. There are no easy solutions. -E.Turner
Watson, A.1984Wilderness values and threats to wilderness in the CairngormsMartin, V.; Inglis, M.Wilderness: the way aheadFindhorn Press, Forres; Lorian Press, Middleton, WI262-268 the ecological importance of the Cairngorm massif and its management as a National Nature Reserve. The area is threatened by recreational developments and overgrazing. -R.Land
Watson, A.1984Paths and people in the CairngormsScottish Geographical Magazine100151-1600036-922510.1080/00369228418736595://WOS:A1984AAV0600002;
Watson, A.1985Soil erosion and vegetation damage near ski lifts at Cairn Gorm, ScotlandBiological Conservation33363-38100063207 (ISSN)10.1016/0006-3207(85)90077-1; to soils and plants is well known at ski grounds, but a survey at Cairn Gorm during 1981 showed severe damage also extending on to the adjacent plateau well inside the Cairngorms National Nature Reserve. It was distinguished from natural damage by diagnostic features associated with human footprints. Areas visited by many people showed more plant damage and soil erosion than areas seldom visited. Disturbed land covered 403 ha, 17% of it in the Reserve. Disturbed land had a higher proportion of grit lying on vegetation than undisturbed land, a lower proportion of ground covered by vegetation, a higher proportion of damaged vegetation, and a higher frequency of plant burial, rill erosion, and dislodged stones and soil. Disturbed land had less bilberry, least willow, ground lichens and mosses, and other species besides grasses, sedges and rushes. On slopes of 15-29°, foot-slipping increased with slope gradient on disturbed but not undisturbed land. Disturbed soil had less water, fine particles and organic matter. (C) 1985.
Watson, A.1991Increase of people on Cairngorm plateau following easier accessScottish Geographical Magazine10799-1050036-922510.1080/00369229118736816://WOS:A1991GE09400003;
Watson, A.; Allan, E.1984The place names of Upper DeesideThe place names of Upper Deeside.Aberdeen University Press0080304036 (ISBN); 9780080304038 (ISBN) 7 000 place names are listed and interpreted for this part of Scotland where the Gaelic language gives way in its decline not to English, as elsewhere in the Highlands, but to the Aberdeenshire type of lowland Scots. The names have been collected by means of interviews with over 260 local people, and from close scrutiny of published maps and books, archival sources and all the graveyards in the area. Together, the names illustrate many aspects of local culture, life style, land use and wildlife, and help gauge the extent of rural depopulation and anglicisation. Appendices examine such topics as the doubtful, erroneous and bogus names of the area, and examples of local rhymes and poetry. -J.Sheail
Watson, A.; Moss, R.2004Impacts of ski-development on ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) at Cairn Gorm, ScotlandBiological Conservation116267-2750006-320710.1016/s0006-3207(03)00197-6://WOS:000188084200012; paper reports adverse impacts on numbers and breeding success of ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in 1967-1996 at a ski area in the Cairngorms massif, where ptarmigan normally show 10-year population cycles. An influx of carrion crows (Corvus corone), generalist predators, followed the development. On the most developed area near the main car park, ptarmigan occurred at high density but then lost nests to frequent crows, reared abnormally few broods, died flying into ski-lift wires and declined until none bred for many summers. On a nearby higher area with fewer wires, ptarmigan lost nests to frequent crows and reared abnormally few broods, but seldom died on wires. Adult numbers declined and then became unusually steady for over two decades, with no significant cycle. On a third area further from the car park, ptarmigan lost fewer nests to the less frequent crows but bred more poorly than in the massif's centre, and showed cycles of lower amplitude than there. On a fourth area yet further away, with few or no crows, ptarmigan bred as well as in the massif's centre and showed cycles of the same amplitude as there. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, A.; Moss, R.; Rothery, P.2000Weather and synchrony in 10-year population cycles of Rock Ptarmigan and Red Grouse in ScotlandEcology812126-21360012-965810.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2126:wasiyp];2://WOS:000088888900007; Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) on two adjacent submassifs, and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) on lower ground between them, shouted largely synchronous similar to 10-yr cycles during a similar to 50-yr study on the infertile Cairngorms massif of Scotland. Adult birds of both these Lagopus species were counted along transect walks. Both species showed the very low mid-1940s trough previously recorded for tetraonids in much of northwest Europe. Each of five subsequent peaks in all three populations fell within a year of one another, and 1-2 yr after cyclic high June temperatures at a nearby village. Troughs were less synchronous. A model with lagged June temperatures and fourth-order delayed density dependence, with no input from observed bird numbers after the first 4 yr, gave a good postdiction of Rock Ptarmigan numbers on the bigger submassif for 49 yr, suggesting a weather cycle entraining a Rock Ptarmigan cycle. However, June temperatures had little explanatory value for Rock Ptarmigan numbers on the smaller submassif. Indirect evidence suggested that synchrony between the two Rock Ptarmigan trajectories may have been due partly to emigration from the bigger to the smaller submassif. The population trajectory of Red Grouse resembled that of Rock Ptarmigan on the smaller submassif more closely than the two Rock Ptarmigan trajectories resembled one other. Hence synchrony depended more on local circumstances than on species.
Watson, A.; Shaw, J.L.1991Parasites and Scottish ptarmigan numbersOecologia88359-3610029-854910.1007/bf00317578://WOS:A1991GP20700008; red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus), which have almost 100% prevalence of the parasitic threadworm Trichostrongylus tenuis and frequently high tapeworm numbers, 70% (n = 71) of Scottish ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) had no threadworms and only 4% had tapeworms. Other parasites and pathogenic bacteria were infrequent. Threadworms occurred in 12% (n = 25) of birds on granite hills where mean ptarmigan densities were low, and in 43% (n = 46) of birds over schists and limestones where mean densities were high. The notion that parasites cause the cyclic-type ptarmigan declines observed on the granite Cairngorms massif is unlikely (ptarmigan fluctuations over the richer rocks are irregular).
Watson, A.; Welch, D.; Heslop, R.E.F.2010Deschampsia flexuosa snowbed grassland on granitic mountains in the CairngormsPlant Ecology & Diversity395-991755-087410.1080/17550874.2010.485621://WOS:000282743900011; A snowbed community with much Deschampsia flexuosa has long been recognised in Norway, but not hitherto as a separate type in Scotland. Aims: The aim of this study was to check provisional observations that similar vegetation occurred frequently in the Cairngorms massif, and describe its composition, soils and snow-lie. Methods: For seven sites on Cairn Gorm and Ben Macdui, all with substantial extent of this vegetation, vegetation composition was recorded, soil profiles assessed and information assimilated from a separate long-term study of snow patches. Results: Deschampsia flexuosa was predominant in this vegetation and the occurrence of other higher plants was low. The main subsidiary species were bryophytes, indicating that the community was related to NVC U12 in the British classification of vegetation. Soils were free-draining alpine podzols. On average, snow-lie continues from the end of June to mid July, which is later than on snowbed vegetation dominated by Nardus stricta, but earlier than on moss-dominated snowbeds. Conclusions: We suggest that this vegetation is sufficiently distinctive to be considered a separate sub-community of NVC U12.
Watson, J., et al.1984Variscan-Caledonian comparisons: late orogenic granitesProceedings - Ussher Society62-12 Variscan granites of SW England form the high points of a batholith at least 200 km in length which seems to maintain a rather uniform composition down to depths of 10 km. The geochemical signature of these granites closely resembles that of the Caledonian Cairngorm batholith in the Grampian Highlands of Scotland. The crustal settings of these two batholiths are shown to have little in common, but the tectonic regimes in operation at the time of emplacement were broadly similar; in both provinces, compressive stresses ended and phase of limited extension associated with block movements coincided with the onset of granite magmatism. The geochemical similarities of the batholiths are thought to reflect similarities in the processes of magma genesis and emplacement. The ultimate source is thought to be metasomatised mantle rather than crustal material. -Authors
Watt, A.D.1988Effects of stress-induced changes in plant quality and host-plant species on the population dynamics of the pine beauty moth in Scotland: partial life tables of natural and manipulated populationsJournal of Applied Ecology25209-22100218901 (ISSN)10.2307/2403619; population size of Panolis flammea was manipulated by infesting with eggs 25-tree plots of lodgepole pine Pinus contorta growing in different soils within Speyside Forest. Population survival of P. flammea on trees growing in deep peat was not higher than on other trees at any time during the study. Larval mortality was higher on Scots pine Pinus sylvestris than on lodgepole pine during the early instars when P. flammea numbers were high but was similar or lower during the later larval instars, and the pre-pupal stage. Results refute the hypothesis that lodgepole pine trees growing in deep peat provide a better food source for P. flammea than lodgepole pine growing elsewhere, or Scots pine. -from Author
Watt, A.S.; Jones, E.W.1948The ecology of the Cairngorms. 1. The environment and the altitudinal zonation of the vegetationJournal of Ecology36283-&0022-047710.2307/2256671://WOS:A1948YD50800003;
Webb, A.D.; Bacon, P.J.; Naura, M.1998Catchment stream surveys and the use of GIS for integrated management: DeeCAMP and the Deeside Rivers SurveyAquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems8541-5531052-761310.1002/(sici)1099-0755(199807/08)8:4<541::aid-aqc259>;2-5://WOS:000075672900011; A field survey of stream and river habitats at a sample of sites was undertaken in the Scottish Dee catchment in 1995 based on the River Habitat Survey (RHS) method, as part of a partnership catchment management project. 2. The selection of survey sites was based on a stratified random sample according to categories of geology, slope, altitude and stream flow. Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis was used to define the strata and facilitate suitable allocation of samples within strata. 3. Survey results were integrated with a desktop-PC version of a decision-support GIS allowing rapid query and display of results. 4. Summary survey statistics were compared with those from the RHS reference site database in order to illustrate how Deeside stream features can be placed in a wider geographical context. 5. Two recorded survey variables were analysed in detail with respect to the GIS data: 87% of the variance of log(stream width) was predictable from GIS-derived variables, but only 17% of the variance of the proportion of gravel/pebble stream-bed substrate (%GP). Stream width can therefore be reliably estimated at unsurveyed sites in Deeside, whereas %GP cannot, from the data used in this study. 6. Variable analyses are discussed in relation to other studies. The usefulness of GIS in survey stratification, variable analyses, display of results, and incorporation of results in management tools is evaluated. The need for a completed RHS reference site database in order to exploit the full potential of the system for catchment studies is also recognized. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Webb, P.C., et al.1985Radiothermal granites of the United Kingdom: comparison of fractionation patterns and variation of heat production for selected granitesHalls, C.High Heat Production (HHP) Granites, Hydrothermal Circulation and Ore GenesisInst. of Mining & Metallurgy, London409-424 petrology and geochemistry of the Cairngorm and Carnmenellis granites are compared to assess the evidence for different depth-distributions of radioelements in granites of the E Highlands and SW England. The Cairngorm granite contains radioelements, mostly in uraninite, U-Nb-Ti-Ta oxides and silicates, monazite and thorite. Uranium, along with the high-field-strength elements, Nb, Y, Ta and Yb is concentrated strongly by fractionation. In contrast, the Carnmenellis granite contains radioelements mainly in uraninite and monazite, and U (along with Nb, Y, Ta, Yb) is concentrated only slightly by fractionation. These differences may be explained by different mineralogical controls of fractionation, and/or the complexing of these large metal ions by fluorine in less aluminous magmas. Fractionation patterns for radioelements are presented, and a model is proposed which is consistent with primary concentration of radioelements towards the present erosion surface in the radiothermal granites of the E Highlands, in contrast to a more uniform depth distribution in SW England granites.-J.M.H.
Webster, L., et al.2008Preliminary assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Scottish aquatic environment, including the Firth of ClydeJournal of Environmental Monitoring10463-4731464-032510.1039/b718687h://WOS:000254648300009; paper presents preliminary data on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Scottish aquatic environment. Sediment and biota (fish liver, fish muscle and mussels) from a number of locations around Scotland were analysed for PBDEs with samples being from both remote and from potentially contaminated areas such as the former sewage sludge dump site at Garroch Head in the Clyde. PBDEs were measured in both cultivated, rope grown mussels and wild mussels collected from 5 sites around Scotland in 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (sum of tri- to hepta-BDEs) ranged from
Weir, D.; Picozzi, N.1983Dispersion of buzzards in SpeysideBritish Birds7666-780007-0335://WOS:A1983QB84100003
Weir, D.N.1971Mortality of hawks and owls in SpeysideBird Study18147-&0006-365710.1080/00063657109476308://WOS:A1971K510800004;
Welch, D.1982The vegetation of an abandoned shieling in Deeside, AberdeenshireTransactions, Botanical Society of Edinburgh4449-5510.1080/03746608208685413; main features of the present-day vegetation of a shieling which was abandoned c.1845 are described and related to descriptions on old maps. Species-poor Agrosto-Festucetum, thickets of juniper Juniperus communis and a grove of birch Betula pendula now grow on the former ploughland. The grassland is grazed by sheep, lagomorphs and some deer, and convergence in composition with grasslands derived from heather moorland under heavy grazing, or direct from woodland, has occurred. All ruderals have disappeared, but 2 very large rowans Sorbus aucuparia and a goat willow Salix capraea mapped in 1866, still remain. -Author
Wells, B., et al.2015Prevalence, species identification and genotyping Cryptosporidium from livestock and deer in a catchment in the Cairngorms with a history of a contaminated public water supplyParasites & Vectors8131756-330510.1186/s13071-015-0684-x://WOS:000349421600001; The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium represents a threat to water quality and public health. An important zoonotic species involved in human cryptosporidiosis from contaminated water is Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), the main reservoirs of which are known to be farm livestock particularly neonatal calves, although adult cattle, sheep, lambs and wildlife are also known to contribute to catchment loading of C. parvum. This study aimed to establish Cryptosporidium prevalence, species and genotype in livestock, deer and water in a catchment with a history of Cryptosporidium contamination in the public water supply. Methods: A novel method of processing adult ruminant faecal sample was used to concentrate oocysts, followed by a nested species specific multiplex (nssm) PCR, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, to speciate Cryptosporidium. A multilocus fragment typing (MLFT) tool was used, in addition to GP60 sequencing, to genotype C. parvum positive samples. Results: A very high prevalence of Cryptosporidium was detected, with speciation identifying a predominance of C. parvum in livestock, deer and water samples. Four GP60 subtypes were detected within C. parvum with the majority IIaA15G2R1 which was detected in all host species and on all farms. Multilocus fragment typing further differentiated these into 6 highly related multilocus genotypes. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium detected was possibly due to a combination of the newly developed sample processing technique used and a reflection of the high rates of the parasite present in this catchment. The predominance of C. parvum in livestock and deer sampled in this study suggested that they represented a significant risk to water quality and public health. Genotyping results suggested that the parasite is being transmitted locally within the study area, possibly via free-roaming sheep and deer. Further studies are needed to verify particular host associations with subtypes/MLGs. Land and livestock management solutions to reduce Cryptosporidium on farm and in the catchment are planned with the aim to improve animal health and production as well as water quality and public health.
Werritty, A.1984Stream response to flash floods in upland Scotland ( Dorback Burn, Cairngorm)Burt, T.P.; Walling, D.E.Catchment experiments in fluvial geomorphology. Proc. IGU Commission meeting, Exeter and Huddersfield, 1981Geo Books, Norwich537-560 years' observations on a short reach of Dorback Burn, Cairngorm, Scotland, demonstrate great complexity in the pattern of channel adjustments to flow regime in gravel-bed rivers. The paper examines the scale and pattern of channel adjustment, the geomorphic significance of flash floods in such rivers, and the pattern of recovery following a flash flood. The sequence of competent flows and the state of the channel prior to a given flood event are shown to be important controls of channel adjustment.-Author
Werritty, A.; Ferguson, R.I.1980Pattern changes in a Scottish braided river over 1, 30, and 200 yearsCullingford, R.A.; Davidson, D.A.; Lewin, J.Timescales in geomorphologyJohn Wiley53-68 and photo sources have problems and restrict investigation to little more than a century. In this article the behaviour of the strongly braided River Feshie (Cairngorms, Scotland) is examined for periods from 1-200 yr. It is braided in three reaches - elsewhere the channel is restrained by rock or terraces. Changes over 50-100 yr are difficult to separate from the short-term effects of discharge. No satisfactory quantitative measure of braiding could be extracted from aerial photographs. Repeated surveys at one-year intervals show that most changes involve channel switching during overbank floods, with limited channel migration by erosion/deposition. -Keith Clayton
Whitney, G.2002Contested mountains: Nature, development and environment in the Cairngorms region of Scotland, 1880-1980Environmental History7683-6851084-545310.2307/3986066://WOS:000179306800011;;
Wiberg, R.A.W., et al.2016The genetic consequences of long term habitat fragmentation on a self-incompatible clonal plant, Linnaea borealis LBiological Conservation201405-4130006-320710.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.032://WOS:000384782800048; species with restricted seed and pollen flow are considered the most vulnerable to the deleterious genetic effects of habitat fragmentation. Immediate effects of fragmentation are expected to be loss of allelic diversity and differentiation of fragments by genetic drift. Later, loss of S allele diversity may lead to restricted mate availability, increased relatedness of genotypes within patches, accelerated loss of genetic diversity and eventual loss of capacity for seed production. We studied the self-incompatible clonal shrub Linnaea borealis within the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland, whose pinewood habitat has been fragmented for an extensive period, possibly millennia. Exhaustive sampling revealed 123 patches (median length 15 m), 91% of which were further than the maximum pollen flow distance from their nearest neighbours (30 m). Using ten microsatelite markers, only 21% of the patches produced more than one multilocus genotype. Individual genotypes extended from 1 to 74 m. Bayesian clustering of the 179 multilocus genotypes revealed six clusters. One cluster occupied a geographically distinct area where seed production still occurs and showed significant genetic differentiation from (F-st = 0.164, P < 0.01) and significantly lower allelic richness (A(R) = 4.0 vs A(R) = 7.0 P < 0.01) than the remainder of the sample set. Spatial genetic structure in the total sample set indicated significant relatedness of clones within the first 1.5 km. Overall, L. borealis in Scotland seems to be experiencing extreme genetic effects of chronic population fragmentation with only 16% of patches having the capacity for seed production. Genetic rescue is being undertaken by transplanting unrelated clones from >1.5 km distance into extant monoclonal patches. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wilson, B.; Puri, G.2001A comparison of pinewood and moorland soils in the Abernethy Forest Reserve, ScotlandGlobal Ecology and Biogeography10291-3030960-744710.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.00226.x://WOS:000169351600006; considerable published literature on the above-ground ecology of the pinewoods of Scotland, little research has considered the way in which pinewood soils differ from those under other vegetation types. Soil properties were compared between ancient, semi-natural Scots pine forest and moorland on three soil types in the Abernethy Forest Reserve in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Soil morphology differed considerably between the vegetation types on each soil type, principally in the thickness of organic layers. Forest soils had thicker organic layers and this was particularly true of the F horizon. Forest soils were slightly less acid than equivalent moorland soils and had accumulated significantly more carbon. Forest soils in this environment therefore have the capacity to sequester larger amounts of carbon than moorland, and therefore represent a significant potential carbon sink. The quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus was also consistently larger in the organic layers under pine forest and since little difference existed in these properties in the mineral horizons, it was concluded that this accumulation was real and represented a net addition to the tree-soil system.
Wilson, C., et al.1987Temperature and stature: a study of temperatures in montane vegetationFunctional Ecology1405-4130269-846310.2307/2389798://WOS:000208584500015; and aerodynamic resistances of the apical meristems of Pin us sylvestris L. and the dwarf shrubs Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. and Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv. were measured simultaneously at four stations along an altitudinal transect in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. Net radiation, air temperature and water vapour pressure were also recorded. Dwarf shrubs, at high altitude stations, experienced tissue temperatures that were no lower than those of trees growing at low altitudes. This resulted from the larger temperature differences between surface and atmosphere experienced by the dwarf life forms. On sunny days with very low windspeeds, the meristems in the short vegetation could be as much as 15 degrees C warmer than those of the atmosphere above, whereas in the tall vegetation the meristems of trees were never more than 7 degrees C warmer than the atmosphere. On windy or dull days the differences were smaller. Lapse rates of mean air temperature were negative over the altitudinal range 450-850m (-9 degrees C km(-1)) whereas the lapse rates of tissue temperature were practically zero because of the greater tissue-to-air temperature differentials in the shorter vegetation at higher altitudes. The high tissue-to-air temperature differentials are attributed to the higher aerodynamic resistances measured for the dwarf shrubs, which form an aerodynamically smoother canopy than the trees. The role of the stature/surface temperature relationship in the distribution and evolution of montane life-forms is briefly considered.
Wilson, R., et al.2012Reconstructing Holocene climate from tree rings: The potential for a long chronology from the Scottish HighlandsHolocene223-110959-683610.1177/0959683611405237://WOS:000298353900001Despite promising research in the 1980s showing the potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for the reconstruction of past summer temperatures in the Scottish Highlands, little dendroclimatic work has been attempted in this region since. This reflects, in part, the limited number of sparsely distributed remnant natural/ semi-natural pine woodlands in the Scottish Highlands and the lack of old growth forest therein. On average, most of the pine trees dated in this region are around 225 years in age. Here, we present the first results of an ongoing interdisciplinary initiative to develop a long Scottish chronology through the acquisition of modern, historical and subfossil pine material from the native pinewoods, historic structures and lakes of the Scottish Highlands. Radiocarbon dating of 25 subfossil pine timbers recovered from lake sediments identified the presence of preserved material covering the last 8000 years with initial clusters focused on the last two millennia and early-mid Holocene. Although developing a well-replicated 8000 year pine chronology will take many years, this preliminary study indicates that a millennial length pine chronology from the northwest Cairngorm region is a feasible and realistic objective in the near future. The importance of such a record in this climatically important sector of northwest Europe cannot be underestimated.
Wood, T.F.1987Methods for assessing relative risk of damage to soils and vegetation arising from winter sports development in the Scottish highlandsJournal of Environmental Management25253-27003014797 (ISSN) 1986 15-year development plan of the Cairngorms Chairlift Company Limited, if accepted, will introduce large numbers of skiers into environments that are also valued highly because of their ecology. There is thus a need for environmental impact assessments that can relate the environmental characteristics of vegetation communities to likely levels of disturbance from winter recreation, both at planning and management levels. The procedure put forward in this paper has five stages. It is argued that the procedure would be a simple way of reducing the subjectivity that has often been employed in the planning and management of Scottish ski areas, in the absence of any established methodology. It is suggested that, on the basis of the results obtained, areas being considered for development have a relatively high risk of damage from winter use, and further studies are therefore warranted. -from Author
Wood, T.F.1987The analysis of environmental impacts resulting from summer recreation in the Cairngorm ski area, ScotlandJournal of Environmental Management25271-2840301-4797://WOS:A1987K403500007
Woolgrove, C.E.; Woodin, S.J.1996Ecophysiology of a snow-bed bryophyte Kiaeria starkei during snowmelt and uptake of nitrate from meltwaterCanadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique741095-11030008-402610.1139/b96-134://WOS:A1996UY56300013; is a very efficient scavenger of atmospheric pollutants and because of the dynamics of snowmelt, much of the pollutant load of a snowpack is released at very high concentrations in episodes known as the acid flush. The ecological effects of this are largely unknown, but any effects on the bryophyte-dominated vegetation of snow beds will depend in part on the physical environment and physiological state of plants under and just out of snow cover. These factors were investigated at a snow bed in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. The subnivean environment is characterized by slightly elevated CO2 concentrations (up to 70 mu L/L above ambient), temperatures at and just above 0 degrees C, and very low light intensity, with no light penetrating through more than 50 cm depth of snow. Despite overwinter storage in these conditions, the bryophyte Kiaeria starkei is shown to be capable of photosynthetic activity immediately after removal of snow cover, and tissue chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentrations increase by 250 and 60%, respectively, during the 2 weeks thereafter. Comparison of photosynthetic light responses at 5 and 18 degrees C in plants collected from under and out of snow cover demonstrates acclimatization to seasonal environmental change that must enable maximization of growth during the short growing season available. Kiaeria starkei is also shown to be capable of nitrate reductase activity even at 2 degrees C and to assimilate more than 90% of the pollutant nitrate coming into contact with it in snowmelt. As nitrate is known to be damaging to bryophytes in excess, this demonstrates a real threat of pollutant deposition to rare snow-bed communities in Scotland today and is an important warning for other regions where snow-bed vegetation is important.
Yang, H.; Rose, N.L.; Battarbee, R.W.2001Dating of recent catchment peats using spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) concentration profiles with particular reference to Lochnagar, ScotlandHolocene11593-59709596836 (ISSN)10.1191/095968301680223549 peat cores were taken from the catchment of Lochnagar, a remote mountain lake in the Cairngorms region of Scotland. Organic content, measured as loss-on-ignition (LOI), profiles of most of the cores are high (>90%) throughout. As the movement of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) is insignificant, with steady accumulation, the peats can be used as an archive for reconstructing the historical records of SCP deposition. The SCP profiles of these cores were matched to the SCP dating features of a Lochnagar lake-sediment core so that the catchment peats could be dated. The results show that the start of SCP record is a good dating feature. The applicability of the rapid increase in SCP concentration for dating depended on the stability of peat accumulation, whereas the subsurface peak may be a useful future dating horizon.
Yang, H., et al.2001Storage and distribution of trace metals and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) from atmospheric deposition in the catchment peats of Lochnagar, ScotlandEnvironmental Pollution115231-2380269-749110.1016/s0269-7491(01)00107-5://WOS:000171915200009; is a remote mountain lake to the south-east of the Cairngorm region in Scotland. Its catchment receives anthropogenic trace metals solely from atmospheric deposition. Ten peat cores were taken from the catchment and analysis confirmed that they have been contaminated by trace metals. The peats have an high affinity for trace metals and this results in metal accumulation in the surface peat layers. The formation of trace metal sulphides may also reduce remobilisation. In this way, trace metals derived from atmospheric deposition have been scavenged and accumulated. In contaminated peat layers, 77.4% Hg, 89.6% Pb, 93.4% Cu, 72.4% Zn and 86.5% Cd of the total stored are from anthropogenic sources. The accumulated trace metals in the peats can potentially influence the lake system through erosion. Spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles were used to date the peat cores. By referring to the SCP profiles in the peats and comparing these with the trace metal profiles in the lake sediments, the mobility of trace metals in the catchment peats is confirmed. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, H.D., et al.2002Mercury and lead budgets for Lochnagar, a Scottish mountain lake and its catchmentEnvironmental Science & Technology361383-13880013-936X10.1021/es010120m://WOS:000174789200018; is a mountain lake located to the southeast of the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. The inputs and outputs of Hg and Pb and their distribution within the various ecosystem compartments were measured. Further, 17 sediment cores and 10 catchment peat cores were taken and dated using spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) and (210)Pb techniques. Total and anthropogenic Hg and Pb inventories since the 1860s for the lake basin and the catchment peats were calculated using this multiple core strategy. Hg sediment flux profiles based on the whole lake basin show that the flux to the sediments increased from the 1880s until the 1970s. This was followed by a relatively stable period (1970s to the present), during which the flux was approximately twice that of the 1880s. Similarly, the Pb flux increased from the 1860s until the 1940s and was also followed by a relatively stable period through to the present. Hg and Pb budgets for the whole catchment for 1998 indicated that 78% of the Hg and 91% of the Pb input to the lake were transported from the catchment. Hence, the expected decline resulting from the decrease in the atmospheric deposition of Pb was obscured in the sediment record. It is estimated that 77% of the total Hg and 90% of the total Pb deposited since the 1860s, and stored in the upper layers of the catchment peat soils, are from anthropogenic sources. The increased storage of Hg and Pb in the catchment implies that this will be a major source of these metals for the lake for many years. This will delay the restoration of the lake system, despite reductions in emissions to the atmosphere and subsequent deposition.
Young, J.A.T.1974Ice wastage in glenmore, upper spey valley, inverness-shireScottish Journal of Geology10147-15700369276 (ISSN)10.1144/sjg10020147 complex system of fluvioglacial landforms, which is part of more widespread evidence of ice sheet wastage in Upper Speyside, is described and discussed. The pattern of features that has been developed is shown to be dependent on a range of local environmental factors as well as on the changing physical condition of the ice. Three distinctive phases of ice wastage, each related to different meltwater outlets, are identified.
Young, J.A.T.1977Glacial geomprphology of Aviemore-Loch Garten areaGeography6225-340016-7487
Young, M.R.; Currie, M.; Scott, A.2009A further occurrence of ethmia pyrausta (pallas, 1771) (Lepidoptera: Ethmiidae) in britainEntomologist's Gazette6081-8300138894 (ISSN) specimen of Eihmia pyrausta is reported from north of Inverness, close to the original location for the species in Britain in 1853. This opens the question of whether the species has been continuously present but undetected in that area. This possibility is discussed in the context of the finding of four specimens on mountaintops in the southern Cairngorms since the mid-1990s. The likely foodplants for its larvae are also discussed, and advice offered on ways to discover its true status, based on what is known of its biology in eastern Europe.
Zalewski, A., et al.2009Landscape barriers reduce gene flow in an invasive carnivore: geographical and local genetic structure of American mink in ScotlandMolecular Ecology181601-16150962-108310.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04131.x://WOS:000264820700007; be effective, management programmes geared towards halting or reversing the spread of invasive species must focus on defined and defensible areas. This requires knowledge of the dispersal of non-native species targeted for control to better understand invasion and recolonisation scenarios. We investigated the genetic structure of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, and incorporated landscape genetic approaches to examine resultant patterns in relation to geographical features that may influence dispersal. Populations of mink sampled from 10 sites in two regions (Argyll and Northeast Scotland) show a distinct genetic structure. First, the majority of pairwise population comparisons yielded F-ST values that were significantly greater than zero. Second, amova revealed that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among regions. Assignment tests placed 89 or more of individuals into their sampled region. Bayesian clustering methods grouped samples into two clusters according to their region of origin. Wombling approach identified the Cairngorms Mountains as a major impediment to gene flow between the regions. Mantel pairwise correlations between genetic and geographical distances estimated as least-cost distance assuming a linear increase in the cost of movement with increasing elevation were higher than Euclidean distances or distance along waterways. Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed stronger spatial structuring for females than for males. These results suggest that gene flow by American mink is restricted by landscape features (mountain ranges) and that eradication attempt should in the first instance break down the connectivity between management units separated by mountains.

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Cairngorms National Park (CNP) literature search protocol

The search protocol used is detailed below, to allow easy updating of the reference list in future, following the same methodology. Alternatively Download the published literature search protocol (PDF | 162KB). Additional comments are included below in square brackets and italics, to distinguish them from the method steps.

The main purpose of this database is to identify what published research (listed in the two literature search websites Web of Science and Scopus) has been carried out in the CNP to date.

NB the purpose was not to identify published research on key topics of interest for the CNP that were not carried out within the CNP – obviously there will be many more papers referring to specific topics of relevance to the CNP but where the research has been carried out in other places.

Published literature

Step 1

Online literature search, using Web of Science (WoS) – and check Scopus too if possible – it finds some extra references.
WoS example:

‘Advanced search’

[After testing various combinations of keywords, the following search string was used – “Cairngorm*” picked up by far the greatest number of records but the other key words added some further useful references, without also picking up too much non-CNP work:]

Search words used:
Cairngorm* OR Speyside OR Deeside OR Aviemore

Restrict language to English; all document types; timespan ‘All years’ (1945-2019).

Step 2

All references exported into a Reference database – exported as ‘full record’, which included abstracts where available.

Step 3

Initial title and abstract sift to delete those papers obviously not relating to research in the CNP.

Step 4

Reference database facility used to search and attach pdfs into the database for any free-access papers.

Step 5

References scanned and any remaining non-CNP references removed.

Step 6

Initial check and correction of major typing (etc) errors in the downloads where they would cause major confusion [there were many – still some remaining but hopefully they are more ‘cosmetic’ than confusing.]

DOI / URL information checked and added (where not initially present) into each publication record where available.

End product = Reference database of published papers on research carried out in the CNP that include one or more of the key words listed above. Reference list printed out for the CNP website includes full citation, Abstract and DOI/URL information.